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REVIEW units 11 -12




REVIEW units 13-15






Part 1



Paris, Dec, 10 – A universal Declaration on Human Rights nearly three years in preparation, was adopted late tonight by the United Nations General Assembly. The vote was 48 to 0 with the Soviet bloc, Saudi Arabia and the Union of South Africa abstaining.

The declaration is the first part of a projected three-part International Bill of Rights. The United Nations now will begin drafting a convention that will be a treaty embodying in specific detail and in legally binding form the principles proclaimed in the declaration. The third part will be a protocol for implementation of the convention possibly by such measures as establishment of an International Court of Human Rights and an International Committee of Conciliation.

The Assembly accorded an ovation to Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt when Dr. Herbert V. Evatt, the Assembly's president, after declaring the declaration adopted, paid tribute to the first chairman of the Human Rights Commission for her tireless efforts in the long process of drafting the document.

«She has raised a great name to an even greater honor»,  Dr. Evatt said of the United States delegate.

Dr. Evatt also singled out for praise Dr. Charles Malik of Lebanon, first rapporteur of the Human Rights Commission and chairman of this Assembly's Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee that spent nearly three months in word-by-word redrafting of the text.

Before the vote Deputy Foreign Minister Andrei Y. Vishinsky of Russia made a final effort to avert adoption of the declaration. He said that the document seemed to support the view that the conception of sovereignty of governments was outdated. He declared that only within the framework of government did human rights have a meaning.

Mr. Vishinsky urged adoption of a Soviet resolution submitted yesterday calling the declaration «unsatisfactory and requiring considerable amendment» and proposing to defer further consideration until the fourth Assembly next fall. Failing to get postponement, he asked the Assembly at least to accept a series of Soviet amendments to the text that would improve the declaration from the Russian viewpoint.

The Russian postponement resolution was rejected, 45 to 6, with 3 abstentions. Four Soviet amendments proposing new texts for the four articles to which the Russian bloc objected most strenuously were defeated by almost as decisive a margin.

The only amendment accepted was a British proposal to reword the declaration's colonial clause.

Article three of the declaration as completed by the Social Committee read: «The rights set forth in this declaration apply equally to all inhabitants of trust and non-self– governing territories». This was deleted and in its place substituted a second paragraph of Article 2, reading:

«Furthermore no distinction shall be made on the basis of political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or the territory to which a person belongs whether it be an independent, trust or non-self-governing territory or under any other limitation of sovereignty».

The Assembly then reached the stage of voting on the draft declaration itself and Dr. Julius Katz-Suchy of Poland asked for a vote article by article. Most articles simply were approved in silence when Dr. Evatt called for objections and the rest by a show of hands.

The final vote on the entire text was taken at four minutes before midnight.

«History will regard this proclamation as one of the outstanding achievements of the United Nations since its establishment»,  Dr. Evatt told the Assembly». During the past year there has been much unfair criticism of activities of the United Nations and in some quarters pessimism has been expressed as to its usefulness.

«This pessimism flows for the main part from difficulties which the United Nations has experienced in the political field. The Declaration on Human Rights is the result of two and a half years of unspectacular but important work in the social, humanitarian and cultural fields.

«This is the first occasion on which the organized international community of nations has made a Declaration on Human Rights and fundamental freedoms. It therefore has all the authority of a collective body of opinion of the United Nations as a whole. It is to this document that millions of men and women in countries far distant from Paris or New York will turn for hope and guidance and inspiration».



1. Sum up the main ides of the text and retell it in Russian.


2. Fill in the missing words from the box into the text below.

rights choose person human animation relevant support mistreated developments liberty atrocities draft fundamental role people cases passed


Human 1)________ are the basic rights and freedoms that belong to every person in the world, from birth until death. They apply regardless of where you are from, what you believe or how you 2)________ to live your life. They can never be taken away, although they can sometimes be restricted  for example if a 3)________ breaks the law, or in the interests of national security.

These basic rights are based on values like dignity, fairness, equality, respect and independence. But 4)________ rights are not just abstract concepts –  they are defined and protected by law. In Britain our human rights are protected by the Human Rights Act 1998.

We’ve produced this short 5)________ to show why human rights are so important and how they protect us in our day-to-day lives.

Human rights are 6)________ to all of us, not just those who face repression or mistreatment. They protect you in many areas of your day-to-day life: here are just some of the main rights and freedoms they 7)________:

•your right to a private and family life as well as expressing your opinions, and

•your right not to be 8)________ or wrongly punished by the state.

The idea that human beings should have a set of basic rights and freedoms has deep roots in Britain. Landmark 9)________ in Britain include the Magna Carta of 1215, the Habeas Corpus Act of 1679 and the Bill of Rights of 1689. See the British Library's website for more information on these and other icons of 10)________ and progress.

The 11)________ of the Second World War made the protection of human rights an international priority. The formation of the United Nations paved the way for more than 50 Member States to contribute to the final 12)________ of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948. This was the first attempt to set out at a global level the 13)________ rights and freedoms shared by all human beings.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is brought to life in this four-minute video, «Everybody – we are all born free», produced by Amnesty.

The Declaration formed the basis for the European Convention on Human Rights, adopted in 1950. British lawyers played a key 14)________ in drafting the Convention, with Winston Churchill also heavily involved. It protects the human rights of  15)________ in countries that belong to the Council of Europe, including the UK.

The Human Rights Act 1998 made these rights part of our domestic law. The Act means that courts in the United Kingdom can hear human rights  16)________. Before it was 17)________, people had to take their complaints to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, France.


3. Read the following article and make a rendering of it in English.



Из Вавилона идея прав человека быстро проникла в Индию, Грецию и в конечном итоге в Рим.

Там родилась идея «естественного права», поскольку было замечено, что люди склонны следовать в жизни определённым неписанным правилам, а римский закон был основан на рациональных идеях, почерпнутых из природы вещей.

Документы, закрепляющие права человека, такие как Великая хартия вольностей (1215 г.), Петиция о праве (1628 г.), Конституция США (1787 г.), французская Декларация прав человека и гражданина (1789 г.) и американский Билль о правах (1791 г.), являются предшественниками многих современных документов о правах человека. Великая хартия вольностей считается наиболее ранним документом, оказавшим значительное влияние на процесс исторического развития, который в итоге привёл к появлению современного конституционного права в англоговорящем мире.

В 1215 году, после того как король Англии Джон нарушил ряд древних законов и традиций, согласно которым осуществлялось управление Англией,

его подданные вынудили его подписать Хартию вольностей, где перечислялись нормы, которые позднее стали рассматриваться как права человека. Среди них было право церкви на невмешательство в её дела со стороны государства, право всех свободных граждан владеть имуществом и наследовать его, а также право на защиту от чрезмерных налогов. В Хартии

было закреплено право вдов, владевших имуществом, не выходить повторно замуж, и установлены принципы справедливого судопроизводства и равенства перед законом. В ней также содержались положения, запрещающие взяточничество и неправомерные действия должностных лиц.

Великая хартия вольностей широко признана как один из важнейших юридических документов для развития современной демократии, и её принятие стало ключевым этапом в борьбе за свободу.

В 1628 году Английский парламент направил это заявление о гражданских свободах королю Чарльзу I. 

В 1628 году Английский парламент направил это заявление о гражданских свободах королю Чарльзу I.

Следующим документом, имевшим историческую важность для развития прав человека, стала Петиция о праве, составленная в 1628 году парламентом Англии и направленная королю Чарльзу I в качестве заявления о гражданских свободах. Отказ парламента финансировать непопулярную внешнюю политику, проводимую королём, вынудил его правительство силой предоставлять ему займы и расквартировывать войска в домах подданных, чтобы оказать экономическое давление. Произвольные аресты и заключения в тюрьму за сопротивление этим действиям вызвали в парламенте сильную враждебность по отношению к Чарльзу и Джорджу Виллерсу, герцогу Букингемскому. Петиция о праве, инициатором которой выступил сэр Эдвард Коук, была основана на более ранних статутах и хартиях, и в ней закреплялись четыре принципа: 1) никакие налоги не могут взиматься без одобрения парламента; 2) ни один подданный не может быть заключён в тюрьму без судебного разбирательства; 3) никакие военные не могут быть расквартированы у гражданских лиц; и 4) военные законы не могут применяться в мирное время.


Part 2



Human rights advocates agree that, sixty years after its issue, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is still more a dream than reality. Violations exist in every part of the world. For example, Amnesty International’s 2009 World Report and other sources show that individuals are:

•Tortured or abused in at least 81 countries

•Face unfair trials in at least 54 countries

•Restricted in their freedom of expression in at least 77 countries

Not only that, but women and children in particular are marginalized in numerous ways, the press is not free in many countries, and dissenters are silenced, too often permanently. While some gains have been made over the course of the last six decades, human rights violations still plague the world today.

To help inform you of the true situation throughout the world, this section provides examples of violations of six Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR):

Article 3 –   The Right To Live Free

«Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person».

An estimated 6,500 people were killed in 2007 in armed conflict in Afghanistan nearly half being noncombatant civilian deaths at the hands of insurgents. Hundreds of civilians were also killed in suicide attacks by armed groups.

In Brazil in 2007, according to official figures, police killed at least 1,260 individuals the highest total to date. All incidents were officially labeled «acts of resistance» and received little or no investigation.

In Uganda, 1,500 people die each week in the internally displaced person camps. According to the World Health Organization, 500,000 have died in these camps.

Vietnamese authorities forced at least 75,000 drug addicts and prostitutes into 71 overpopulated «rehab» camps, labeling the detainees at «high risk» of contracting HIV/AIDS but providing no treatment.

Article 4 –   No Slavery

«No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms».

In northern Uganda, the LRA (Lord’s Resistance Army) guerrillas have kidnapped 20,000 children over the past twenty years and forced them into service as soldiers or sexual slaves for the army.

In Guinea-Bissau, children as young as five are trafficked out of the country to work in cotton fields in southern Senegal or as beggars in the capital city. In Ghana, children five to fourteen are tricked with false promises of education and future into dangerous, unpaid jobs in the fishing industry.

In Asia, Japan is the major destination country for trafficked women, especially women coming from the Philippines and Thailand. UNICEF estimates 60,000 child prostitutes in the Philippines.

The US State Department estimates 600,000 to 820,000 men, women and children are trafficked across international borders each year, half of whom are minors, including record numbers of women and girls fleeing from Iraq. In nearly all countries, including Canada, the US and the UK, deportation or harassment are the usual governmental responses, with no assistance services for the victims.

In the Dominican Republic, the operations of a trafficking ring led to the death by asphyxiation of 25 Haitian migrant workers. In 2007, two civilians and two military officers received lenient prison sentences for their part in the operation.

In Somalia in 2007, more than 1,400 displaced Somalis and Ethiopian nationals died at sea in trafficking operations.

Article 5 –  No Torture

«No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment».

In 2008, US authorities continued to hold 270 prisoners in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, without charge or trial, subjecting them to «water-boarding»,  torture that simulates drowning. Former-President George W. Bush authorized the CIA to continue secret detention and interrogation, despite its violation of international law.

In Darfur, violence, atrocities and abduction are rampant and outside aid all but cut off. Women in particular are the victims of unrestrained assault, with more than 200 rapes in the vicinity of a displaced persons camp in one five-week period, with no effort by authorities to punish the perpetrators.

In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, acts of torture and ill treatment are routinely committed by government security services and armed groups, including sustained beatings, stabbings and rapes of those in custody. Detainees are held incommunicado, sometimes in secret detention sites. In 2007, the Republican Guard (presidential guard) and Special Services police division in Kinshasa arbitrarily detained and tortured numerous individuals labeled as critics of the government.


1. Sum up the main ides of the text and retell it in Russian.


2. Fill in the missing words from the box into the text below.

thousands retaliation government refugees countries teaching active authorities detained subregion camps permanently religion friends practitioners community destruction acquired


In Myanmar, 1)________ of citizens were detained, including 700 prisoners of conscience, most notably Nobel Laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. In 2)________ for her political activities, she has been imprisoned or under house arrest for twelve of the last eighteen years, and has refused 3)________ offers of release that would require her to leave the country.

In Algeria, 4)________ and asylum-seekers were frequent victims of detention, expulsion or ill treatment. Twenty-eight individuals from sub-Saharan African 5)________ with official refugee status from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) were deported to Mali after being falsely tried, without legal counsel or interpreters, on charges of entering Algeria illegally. They were dumped near a desert town where a Malian armed group was 6)________, without food, water or medical aid.

In Kenya, 7)________ violated international refugee law when they closed the border to thousands of people fleeing armed conflict in Somalia. Asylum-seekers were illegally 8)________ at the Kenyan border without charge or trial and forcibly returned to Somalia.

In northern Uganda, 1.6 million citizens remained in displacement camps. In the Acholi 9)________, the area most affected by armed conflict, 63 percent of the 1.1 million people displaced in 2005 were still living in 10)________ in 2007, with only 7,000 returned 11)________ to their places of origin.

 «Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his 12)________ or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in 13)________, practice, worship and observance».

In Myanmar, the military junta crushed peaceful demonstrations led by monks, raided and closed monasteries, confiscated and destroyed property, shot, beat and detained protesters, and harassed or held hostage the 14)________ and family members of the protesters.

In China, Falun Gong 15)________ were singled out for torture and other abuses while in detention. Christians were persecuted for practicing their religion outside state-sanctioned channels.

In Kazakhstan, local authorities in a 16)________ near Almaty authorized the 17)________ of twelve homes, all belonging to Hare Krishna members, falsely charging that the land on which the homes were built had been illegally 18)________. Only homes belonging to members of the Hare Krishna community were destroyed.


3. Read the following article and make a rendering of it in English.



Правозащитники соглашаются с тем, что и 60 лет спустя после принятия Всеобщей декларации прав человека она всё ещё является в большей степени мечтой, чем реальностью. Нарушения происходят во всех частях мира. Например, согласно отчёту «Международной амнистии» за 2009 год и другим источникам, людей:

•подвергают пыткам или жестокому обращению по крайней мере в 81 стране;

•подвергают несправедливым судебным преследованиями по крайней

мере в 54 странах;

•ограничивают их свободу самовыражения по крайней мере в 77 странах.

В частности, различным притеснениям подвергаются женщины и дети, во многих странах пресса не свободна, а инакомыслящих заставляют замолчать, в слишком многих случаях – навсегда. Хотя за прошедшие шесть десятилетий удалось достичь некоторых результатов, нарушения прав человека всё ещё чрезвычайно распространены в современном мире.

Чтобы проинформировать вас о действительном положении дел в мире, в этом разделе приведены примеры нарушений шести статей Всеобщей декларации прав человека.


«Каждый человек имеет право на жизнь, на свободу и на личную неприкосновенность».

В 2007 году около 6500 человек были убиты в вооружённом конфликте в Афганистане, и почти половина из них –   мирные жители, убитые повстанцами. Также сотни мирных жителей были убиты во время самоубийственных атак вооружённых группировок.

Согласно официальным отчётам, в Бразилии в 2007 году полиция убила по меньшей мере 1260 человек – это самый высокий показатель на сегодняшний день. Эти случаи официально были названы «актами сопротивления» и по ним не проводилось практически никакого расследования.

В Уганде 1500 человек умирают каждую неделю в лагерях беженцев. Согласно данным Всемирной организации здравоохранения, в этих лагерях в общей сложности умерло 500 000 человек.

Власти Вьетнама насильно поместили по меньшей мере 75 000 наркоманов и проституток в 71 переполненный «реабилитационный» лагерь, заявив, что те подвержены риску заболевания СПИДом, но в то же время не предоставляют им никакого лечения.


Part 3



The belief that everyone, by virtue of her or his humanity, is entitled to certain human rights is fairly new. Its roots, however, lie in earlier tradition and documents of many cultures; it took the catalyst of World War II to propel human rights onto the global stage and into the global conscience.

Throughout much of history, people acquired rights and responsibilities through their membership in a group – a family, indigenous nation, religion, class, community, or state. Most societies have had traditions similar to the «golden rule» of «Do unto others as you would have them do unto you». The Hindu Vedas, the Babylonian Code of Hammurabi, the Bible, the Quran (Koran), and the Analects of Confucius are five of the oldest written sources which address questions of people’s duties, rights, and responsibilities. In addition, the Inca and Aztec codes of conduct and justice and an Iroquois Constitution were Native American sources that existed well before the 18th century. In fact, all societies, whether in oral or written tradition, have had systems of propriety and justice as well as ways of tending to the health and welfare of their members.

Precursors of 20th Century Human Rights Documents

Documents asserting individual rights, such the Magna Carta (1215), the English Bill of Rights (1689), the French Declaration on the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789), and the US Constitution and Bill of Rights (1791) are the written precursors to many of today’s human rights documents. Yet many of these documents, when originally translated into policy, excluded women, people of color, and members of certain social, religious, economic, and political groups. Nevertheless, oppressed people throughout the world have drawn on the principles these documents express to support revolutions that assert the right to self-determination.

Contemporary international human rights law and the establishment of the United Nations (UN) have important historical antecedents. Efforts in the 19th century to prohibit the slave trade and to limit the horrors of war are prime examples. In 1919, countries established the International Labor Organization (ILO) to oversee treaties protecting workers with respect to their rights, including their health and safety. Concern over the protection of certain minority groups was raised by the League of Nations at the end of the First World War. However, this organization for international peace and cooperation, created by the victorious European allies, never achieved its goals. The League floundered because the United States refused to join and because the League failed to prevent Japan’s invasion of China and Manchuria (1931) and Italy’s attack on Ethiopia (1935). It finally died with the onset of the Second World War (1939).

The Birth of the United Nations

The idea of human rights emerged stronger after World War II. The extermination by Nazi Germany of over six million Jews, Sinti and Romani (gypsies), homosexuals, and persons with disabilities horrified the world. Trials were held in Nuremberg and Tokyo after World War II, and officials from the defeated countries were punished for committing war crimes, «crimes against peace»,  and «crimes against humanity».

Governments then committed themselves to establishing the United Nations, with the primary goal of bolstering international peace and preventing conflict. People wanted to ensure that never again would anyone be unjustly denied life, freedom, food, shelter, and nationality. The essence of these emerging human rights principles was captured in President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s 1941 State of the Union Address when he spoke of a world founded on four essential freedoms: freedom of speech and religion and freedom from want and fear (See Using Human Rights Here & Now). The calls came from across the globe for human rights standards to protect citizens from abuses by their governments, standards against which nations could be held accountable for the treatment of those living within their borders. These voices played a critical role in the San Francisco meeting that drafted the United Nations Charter in 1945.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Member states of the United Nations pledged to promote respect for the human rights of all. To advance this goal, the UN established a Commission on Human Rights and charged it with the task of drafting a document spelling out the meaning of the fundamental rights and freedoms proclaimed in the Charter. The Commission, guided by Eleanor Roosevelt’s forceful leadership, captured the world’s attention. 

On December 10, 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was adopted by the 56 members of the United Nations. The vote was unanimous, although eight nations chose to abstain.

The UDHR, commonly referred to as the international Magna Carta, extended the revolution in international law ushered in by the United Nations Charter –  namely, that how a government treats its own citizens is now a matter of legitimate international concern, and not simply a domestic issue. It claims that all rights are interdependent and indivisible. Its Preamble eloquently asserts that:

Recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice, and peace in the world.

The influence of the UDHR has been substantial. Its principles have been incorporated into the constitutions of most of the more than 185 nations now in the UN. Although a declaration is not a legally binding document, the Universal Declaration has achieved the status of customary international law because people regard it «as a common standard of achievement for all people and all nations».

The Human Rights Covenants

With the goal of establishing mechanisms for enforcing the UDHR, the UN Commission on Human Rights proceeded to draft two treaties: the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and its optional Protocol and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). Together with the Universal Declaration, they are commonly referred to as the International Bill of Human Rights. The ICCPR focuses on such issues as the right to life, freedom of speech, religion, and voting. The ICESCR focuses on such issues as food, education, health, and shelter. Both covenants trumpet the extension of rights to all persons and prohibit discrimination.

As of 1997, over 130 nations have ratified these covenants. The United States, however, has ratified only the ICCPR, and even that with many reservations, or formal exceptions, to its full compliance. (See From Concept to Convention: How Human Rights Law Evolves).

Subsequent Human Rights Documents

In addition to the covenants in the International Bill of Human Rights, the United Nations has adopted more than 20 principal treaties further elaborating human rights. These include conventions to prevent and prohibit specific abuses like torture and genocide and to protect especially vulnerable populations, such as refugees (Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1951), women (Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1979), and children (Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989). As of 1997 the United States has ratified only these conventions:

·        The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

·        The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide

·        The Convention on the Political Rights of Women

·        The Slavery Convention of 1926

·        The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading  Treatment or Punishment

In Europe, the Americas, and Africa, regional documents for the protection and promotion of human rights extend the International Bill of Human Rights. For example, African states have created their own Charter of Human and People’s Rights (1981), and Muslim states have created the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam (1990). The dramatic changes in Eastern Europe, Africa, and Latin America since 1989 have powerfully demonstrated a surge in demand for respect of human rights. Popular movements in China, Korea, and other Asian nations reveal a similar commitment to these principles.



1. Sum up the main ides of the text and retell it in Russian.


2. Fill in the missing words from the box into the text below.

government international violations act officials brought

rights wear achieving human


Globally the champions of human rights have most often been citizens, not 1)_________ officials. In particular, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have played a cardinal role in focusing the 2)_________ community on human rights issues. For example, NGO activities surrounding the 1995 United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, China, drew unprecedented attention to serious 3)_________ of the human rights of women. NGOs such as Amnesty International, the Antislavery Society, the International Commission of Jurists, the International Working Group on Indigenous Affairs, Human Rights Watch, Minnesota Advocates for Human Rights, and Survivors International monitor the actions of governments and pressure them to 4)_________ according to human rights principles.

Government  5)_________ who understand the human rights framework can also effect far reaching change for freedom. Many United States Presidents such as Abraham Lincoln, Franklin Roosevelt, Lyndon B. Johnson, and Jimmy Carter have taken strong stands for 6)_________ rights. In other countries leaders like Nelson Mandela and Vaclev Havel have 7)_________ about great changes under the banner of human rights. 

Human right is an idea whose time has come. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a call to freedom and justice for people throughout the world. Every day governments that violate the  8)_________ of their citizens are challenged and called to task. Every day human beings worldwide mobilize and confront injustice and inhumanity. Like drops of water falling on a rock, they 9)_________ down the forces of oppression and move the world closer to 10)_________ the principles expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.


3. Read the following article and make a rendering of it in English.


В современном мире существует множество различных политических режимов с собственными моделями взаимоотношений государства и личности, своими стандартами соблюдения прав и свобод человека. Демократические режимы соседствуют с авторитарными, либеральные с коммунистическими. Изъятия отдельных прав сочетаются с массовыми нарушениями прав человека. А как писал русский ученый М. Бакунин, всеобщая свобода присутствует лишь там, где «она распространяется на каждого», где свободное общество представлено совокупностью «массовых примеров».

В принципе в определенных условиях государство, в зависимости от своих реальных возможностей, может менять содержание экономических или социальных прав. В чрезвычайных условиях, для защиты конституционного строя оно может даже приостанавливать реализацию определенных гражданских прав, ограничивать свободы, поражать в правах тех или иных лиц (например, лишать лиц, обвиняемых в уголовных преступлениях, права быть избранными в органы власти) или группы (запрещая экстремистские партии и движения). Однако и здесь существуют четкие границы возможностей для государства, ориентированного на соблюдение прав и свобод личности. Например, даже при чрезвычайных обстоятельствах законодательно устанавливаются пределы и сроки действия таких ограничений. И при этом ряд основополагающих прав, к примеру, право на жизнь, свобода совести, свобода вероисповеданий, право на жилище или право на судебную защиту, вообще не подлежат отмене.

Но есть и такие способы действий режимов, которые направлены на ограничение прав как фундаментальных начал в отношениях государства и человека. К таким способам относятся, например, введение неоправданных (возрастных, материальных, территориальных) цензов, ограничивающих возможности граждан на формирование органов власти и на участие в их работе; или закрепление разрешительного вместо регистрационного порядка регулирования политической активности населения, при котором власть берет на себя правоустанавливающие функции, что в конечном счете отрицает фундаментальный характер политических прав.

В целом, с учетом мирового опыта, можно выделить следующие четыре группы нарушений прав человека со стороны государства и отдельных политических сил (в порядке значимости):

·        геноцид и этнические «чистки», гражданские войны, политический терроризм;

·        апартеид, расовая дискриминация, сегрегация;

·        ограничение политических прав гражданина;

·        уничтожение окружающей природы, введение ограничений на получение информации, сокращение доступа к культурным ценностям.

Предотвратить нарушения прав человека можно только при должной политической воле правящего режима, а в более широком плане – при установлении в конкретных странах гарантий взаимной ответственности государства и гражданина.