REVIEW units 1 -2



REVIEW units 3 -4



REVIEW units 5 -6



REVIEW units 7-8



REVIEW units 9-10



REVIEW units 11 -12




REVIEW units 13-15






Part 1



Where the Executive and Legislative branches are elected by the people, members of the Judicial Branch are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.

Article III of the Constitution, which establishes the Judicial Branch, leaves Congress significant discretion to determine the shape and structure of the federal judiciary. Even the number of Supreme Court Justices is left to Congress –   at times there have been as few as six, while the current number (nine, with one Chief Justice and eight Associate Justices) has only been in place since 1869. The Constitution also grants Congress the power to establish courts inferior to the Supreme Court, and to that end Congress has established the United States district courts, which try most federal cases, and 13 United States courts of appeals, which review appealed district court cases.

Federal judges can only be removed through impeachment by the House of Representatives and conviction in the Senate. Judges and justices serve no fixed term –   they serve until their death, retirement, or conviction by the Senate. By design, this insulates them from the temporary passions of the public, and allows them to apply the law with only justice in mind, and not electoral or political concerns.

Generally, Congress determines the jurisdiction of the federal courts. In some cases, however – such as in the example of a dispute between two or more U.S. states  the Constitution grants the Supreme Court original jurisdiction, an authority that cannot be stripped by Congress.

The courts only try actual cases and controversies –   a party must show that it has been harmed in order to bring suit in court. This means that the courts do not issue advisory opinions on the constitutionality of laws or the legality of actions if the ruling would have no practical effect. Cases brought before the judiciary typically proceed from district court to appellate court and may even end at the Supreme Court, although the Supreme Court hears comparatively few cases each year.

Federal courts enjoy the sole power to interpret the law, determine the constitutionality of the law, and apply it to individual cases. The courts, like Congress, can compel the production of evidence and testimony through the use of a subpoena. The inferior courts are constrained by the decisions of the Supreme Court – once the Supreme Court interprets a law, inferior courts must apply the Supreme Court's interpretation to the facts of a particular case.

The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the land and the only part of the federal judiciary specifically required by the Constitution.

The Constitution does not stipulate the number of Supreme Court Justices; the number is set instead by Congress. There have been as few as six, but since 1869 there have been nine Justices, including one Chief Justice. All Justices are nominated by the President, confirmed by the Senate, and hold their offices under life tenure. Since Justices do not have to run or campaign for re-election, they are thought to be insulated from political pressure when deciding cases. Justices may remain in office until they resign, pass away, or are impeached and convicted by Congress.

The Court's caseload is almost entirely appellate in nature, and the Court's decisions cannot be appealed to any authority, as it is the final judicial arbiter in the United States on matters of federal law. However, the Court may consider appeals from the highest state courts or from federal appellate courts. The Court also has original jurisdiction in cases involving ambassadors and other diplomats, and in cases between states.

Although the Supreme Court may hear an appeal on any question of law provided it has jurisdiction, it usually does not hold trials. Instead, the Court's task is to interpret the meaning of a law, to decide whether a law is relevant to a particular set of facts, or to rule on how a law should be applied. Lower courts are obligated to follow the precedent set by the Supreme Court when rendering decisions.

In almost all instances, the Supreme Court does not hear appeals as a matter of right; instead, parties must petition the Court for a writ of certiorari. It is the Court's custom and practice to «grant cert» if four of the nine Justices decide that they should hear the case. Of the approximately 7,500 requests for certiorari filed each year, the Court usually grants cert to fewer than 150. These are typically cases that the Court considers sufficiently important to require their review; a common example is the occasion when two or more of the federal courts of appeals have ruled differently on the same question of federal law.

If the Court grants certiorari, Justices accept legal briefs from the parties to the case, as well as from amicus curiae, or «friends of the court». These can include industry trade groups, academics, or even the U.S. government itself. Before issuing a ruling, the Supreme Court usually hears oral arguments, where the various parties to the suit present their arguments and the Justices ask them questions. If the case involves the federal government, the Solicitor General of the United States presents arguments on behalf of the United States. The Justices then hold private conferences, make their decision, and (often after a period of several months) issue the Court's opinion, along with any dissenting arguments that may have been written.



1. Sum up the main ides of the text and retell it in Russian.


2. Fill in the missing words from the box into the text below.

made confirmed cover can death decisions court since nominates lower review speedy representation accused given defendant judge overturn


The Judicial Branch of the government is 1)_________ up of judges and courts. Federal judges are not elected by the people. They are appointed by the president and then 2)_________ by the Senate.

There is a hierarchy of federal courts in the United States. At lowest level are 94 U.S. District Courts which 3)_________ different regions of the country and handle most federal cases. Above the District Courts are the 13 Courts of Appeals. At the top of the Judicial Branch is the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court has the final say.

Federal judges are appointed for life. They 4)_________ only be removed from office by 5)_________ or by impeachment from Congress. This is to allow judges to make decisions based on their conscience and not on what they feel they need to do to get elected.

 The job of the courts is to interpret the laws of the Congress. They do not make laws. They also only make 6)_________ on actual cases where someone has shown that they have been harmed.

The highest 7)_________ in the United States is the Supreme Court. The Constitution doesn't say how many Supreme Court Justices there should be. There have been as few as 6 justices in the past, but 8)_________ 1869 there have been 9 justices.

The President  9)_________ all the Supreme Court members and the Senate confirms them. They hold their offices for life.

 The Supreme Court doesn't have a lot of trials. What they mostly do is review cases that have been appealed from the 10)_________ courts. Not all cases that are sent to the Supreme Court are reviewed. Around 7,500 requests are sent to the Supreme Court each year and they only consider around 150 important enough to 11)_________.

The Constitution states that every person has the right to a fair trial before a competent judge and a jury of their peers. The Bill of Rights adds to this guaranteeing other rights such as a 12)_________ trial, the right to legal 13)_________, the right not to be tried for the same crime twice, and protection from cruel punishments.

 Once arrested for a crime, the 14)_________ will get to appear before a judge to be charged with the crime and to enter a plea of guilty or not-guilty.

 Next the accused is 15)_________ a lawyer, if they can't afford their own, and is given time to review the evidence and build up their defense. Then the case is tried before a judge and a jury. If the jury determines that the 16)_________ is not-guilty, then charges are dropped and the accused goes free. If the jury has a guilty verdict, then the 17)_________ determines the sentence.

 If one side feels that the trial wasn't handled correctly or fairly, they can appeal to a higher court. The higher court may 18)_________ the decision or keep it the same. The highest court is the Supreme Court. There is no appealing a Supreme Court decision.


3. Read the following article and make a rendering of it in English.


Законодательную власть в РФ осуществляет Федеральное собрание – представительный, законодательный и контролирующий орган, который состоит из Совета Федерации и Гос. думы (в субъектах РФ их законодательную власть осуществляют законодательные органы субъектов РФ). Гос. дума избирается непосредственно гражданами, Совет Федерации состоит из членов, избранных представительными органами субъектов РФ (половина членов Совета Федерации) и назначенных главами администрации субъектов Федерации (вторая половина). Палаты заседают раздельно, однако могут собираться совместно, на пример для заслушивания Посланий Президента РФ, Конституционного суда РФ, выступлений руководителей иностранных государств.

Совет Федерации и Гос. дума избирают из своего состава председателей и их заместителей, образуют комитеты и комиссии, проводят по вопросам своего ведения парламентские слушания. Каждая из палат принимает свой регламент и решает вопросы внутреннего распорядка своей деятельности. Для осуществления контроля за исполнением федерального бюджета Совет Федерации и Гос. дума образуют Счётную палату РФ, состав и порядок деятельности которой определяются Федеральным законом «О Счётной палате РФ» (1995).

Члены Совета Федерации и депутаты Гос. думы обладают неприкосновенностью в течение всего срока их полномочий: они не могут быть задержаны, арестованы, подвергнуты обыску (кроме случаев задержания на месте преступления), а также подвергнуты личному досмотру, за исключением случаев, когда это предусмотрено федеральным законом для обеспечения безопасности др. людей. Вопрос о лишении их неприкосновенности решается по представлению Генерального прокурора РФ соответствующей палатой Федерального собрания.

К ведению Совета Федерации относятся: утверждение изменения границ между субъектами РФ; утверждение указов Президента РФ о введении военного или чрезвычайного положения; решение вопросов о возможности использования Вооружённых сил РФ за пределами территории РФ; назначение выборов Президента РФ; отрешение Президента РФ от должности; назначение на должность судей Конституционного суда РФ, Верховного суда РФ, Высшего арбитражного суда РФ; назначение на должность и освобождение от должности Генерального прокурора РФ, заместителя председателя Счётной палаты РФ и половины состава его аудиторов. Совет Федерации принимает постановления по вопросам, отнесённым к его ведению Конституцией РФ, большинством голосов от общего числа членов Совета Федерации, если иной порядок принятия решений не предусмотрен Конституцией РФ.


Part 2



Government by definition is civil government of a sovereign state which can be local, national, or international. Its main purpose is to maintain social order and protect the citizens and property within the constitutional boundaries of its governance. There are 195 countries in the world and 123 of those are democratic states as is the UK (ONS). A democratic government is created by way of citizens of a particular state voting for whom they wish to govern; this is in comparison to socialist dictatorship’s that do not allow its citizens to participate within the political system. Even though the UK government is democratically voted in to power there is a need for that government to be adhering to rules and regulations and be answerable for its actions and policies. With this said there needs to be a way of ensuring that the majority party in power is scrutinised, examined and certifiably fit for purpose and are not acting in a totalitarian manner irreverently discarding duties and abusing its position of power. This can be done by creating checks and balances.

The checks and balances are a system for separation of powers, or to be precise a system of shared power. It is there to make sure that no one group or branch of government can have exclusive control. Government in the UK is made up of executive branch (Prime Minister), legislature (House of Commons and House of Lords) and judiciary (the Courts). Each of the three branches has their own powers to check the action of the other branches. The executive branch is the Prime minister. As head of the majority party s/he has the ability to appoint ministers to his/her cabinet, implement policies and get legislation passed without too much difficulty. The PM is also the main spokesperson for government and has the authority to exercise powers of the crown without consulting parliament. This however does not make the PM all powerful and the main check on the Prime Minister's power comes from the British people. Voting in a general election is the key check with an un-popular PM and his government being ousted from power. The PM can also be ousted by members of his/her own party via a vote of no-confidence. This also applies to the government in general. If a government suffers a vote of confidence resolution compels the government to resign and a general election to be called, this happened to the Callaghan Government of 1979.

The governing majority party is kept in check by those from other parties, the opposition. Prime ministers question time is an example of open debate where the PM and his government are accountable to parliament as a whole. In addition to this the opposition gets several days per Parliamentary session to hold debates on subjects of their choosing. Parliamentary procedures are designed to scrutinise legislative proposals and the government will not always get its own way, PACE 1984 was substantially altered due to pressure from MPs from all sides.

The UK government is Asymmetrical Bicameralism, meaning that there are two chambers of parliament, the Commons and The House of Lords. The House of Commons exercises more power than the House of Lords, prior to 1997 each house had equal power. The House of Commons use the Lords as an advisory medium and passes legislative proposals through for ratification. The House of Lords can amend and delay most legislative Bills for up to one year before the Parliament Acts 1911 & 1949 take effect (bypassing the Lords and going straight to the Queen for the Royal Assent). Instead of having its proposals being obstructed by The Lords government may favour a compromise to its proposals or bow to amendments made by the House of Lords. This shows the legislature holding the executive to account.

Outside of main parliament there are other influences exerted that help to shape policy and keep those with power up to date and in check with public opinion. Pressure and interest groups each have a vital role to play. The aim a pressure/interest group is to influence the people who actually have the power to make decisions. Being part of such a group is a way for the ordinary man in the street to be involved within the political landscape and actually make a difference by campaigning for whatever reason the group has been set up. Such groups can make a difference by standing alone but have far better chance of being taken seriously by being part of policy networks. Policy networks bring together powerful state ministers with non-state political actors in order to thrash out issues that are felt should be part of government policy. Such networks use bargaining in order to shape and influence policy. It is an ideal arena for interest groups to get their say and visa-versa it is essential for government to be in tune with the populous that voted them in and such networks should be viewed as an arena for them to see if current policies are working and what needs to change in order for on-going progress to be made. Pressure groups are sometimes able to gather sufficient support to force government to amend or even scrap legislation; one such example was in 1998 when 300,000 supporters of the countryside alliance marched in London in protest against the then Labour government’s new rural policies. The magnitude of support resulted in the creation of the Ministry of Rural Affairs. It would also be fair to say at this point that the assistance of the media in such instances also help to keep government in check. A poor performing government or ill thought out policy making is very often lambasted and take up many columns of national press. Whilst no newspaper campaigns can be singled out as being instrumental in ousting a government from power it can be said that their influence on public opinion cannot be discounted. However the media coverage of the 2009 expenses scandal clearly indicates the potency of the media when there is a clear abuse of power and was pivotal in ensuring the accountability of government ministers.

The two houses of parliament coupled with the judiciary, policy networks, pressure/interest groups and media all assist in balancing power and ensure that government is kept accountable for its actions. In order for a system of direct democracy to properly function it relies on citizen participation, a factor that the UK has been seen in decline for some time. However participation is the ultimate check. Government from the centre in unitary systems has always hindered the wider spectrum of checking and balancing. In recent years we have seen additional de-centralisation of power with devolution in Scotland, the Welsh assembly and in Northern Ireland. Moving powers to local areas increases the need for accountability and thus creates new checks and further reduces the instances of one party having a stranglehold and becoming all powerful. Some very important legislative and policy changes can also be dealt with by way of referendum allowing the public to vote on significant changes to issues such as continued integration within the European Union that may result is loss of sovereignty or conversion to the Euro from the Pound.

The UK has, under The Constitutional Reform Act 2005, taken the legislature away from the law lords and created a Supreme Court away from Parliament. It also removed the Lord Chancellor from Judicial and removed him/her from being speaker for the House of Lords. This indicates government responding to the need for continued constitutional change and separation of powers by formulating judicial independence away from government with no political affiliations. The continued evolution within constitutional reform in the UK, evident since the late 17th Century, has resulted in more checks and balances in recent history. In my opinion there are many ways in which government is held accountable for its actions even though there is still overlapping of the three branches of government and no formal separation between them. The acceptance of the Human Rights Act 1998 has further seen dilution of centralised power in the UK and ended the Home Secretary’s role in criminal sentencing it also allows judges to check the executive in judicial review cases increasing culpability of the executive and ensures that the executive does not exceed the powers with which it has been bestowed by parliament. However with more and more powers being transferred to the European Union via the Lisbon Treaty 2009 are we not in a situation where we stand the risk of being governed by an unelected three-tier centralised executive in Brussels? After all the hard work of separating powers and implementing checks and balances over the past 300 years we may risk inadvertently taking several steps backwards.

Each parliamentary year, the Cabinet has to decide on what it wishes to do regarding legislation that year. As such it has to prioritise what it wants  though it has to be wary of promises made to the public at large. A parliamentary session does not last for one calendar year. With extended recesses, Parliament actually sits for a lot less than twelve months. Each parliamentary year, the government has time for perhaps no more than twenty major bills. As these absorb the bulk of Parliament’s time, there is little time left for Private Members’ Bills etc.

Legislation in Parliament is driven by what is said in the Queen’s Speech that traditionally opens Parliament in November. Once a decision has been taken by the government to introduce whatever form of legislation it wants, a potentially convoluted process takes place before the bill becomes law.

The first process is one of formulation. This is actually deciding what is going to be contained in that bill. Both ministers and civil servants acting on behalf of the government do this process. In fact, in many instances, the details of a bill are left to experts within a civil service department who are there to work for the government. Parliamentary Counsels (government lawyers) are responsible for actually drafting the bill.

Before words are put to paper, a period of consultation occurs. Either a «Green» Paper or a «White» Paper is published and members of the public are invited to comment on future bills using these papers as a basis for discussion and contact with their MP if they feel that this is necessary.

What is the difference between a White and a Green Paper?

A Green Paper is an exploratory one that is designed to stimulate discussion amongst a wide audience. A White Paper is a statement of where the government wishes to go in the sense that it is fairly definite in what it thinks is required. If the issue is very much an open one, a Green Paper usually comes before a White Paper to allow for an expansive debate on the issue. One single issue can have both a Green and a White Paper released on it so that the public can have an insight into what the government wants but also has access to a document that presents an across-the-board selection of arguments.



1. Sum up the main ides of the text and retell it in Russian.


2. Fill in the missing words from the box into the text below.

wants government experts published common comes people preparatory bill majority title happens can time given exclusively three represents


If the 1)___________ want a bill to pass, it is in their interest to ensure that all the areas that need to be analysed have been. Therefore, extensive consultations are carried out to ensure that what the government 2)___________, comes into being. For a bill that is deemed by the government to be important, many groups are consulted: 3)___________, Treasury officials if there are major monetary implications, trade union leaders especially, if there are employment issues at stake, MP’s, trade organisations etc.

To allow for full public consultation, a draft bill might be 4)___________ to allow the public at large (and the Parliamentary opposition!) to see what the effective final act 5)___________  be. Prior to 1997, releasing a bill in draft form was quite rare. However, since 1997, this has become more and more 6)___________. In one sense, this process is seen as the government being more responsive to the people and giving the 7)___________ the opportunity of making the government responsible to them rather than the other way round.

Only after a bill has been drafted and agreed on by ministers, does it go to the House of Commons for its first reading.

After so much 8)___________ work, the bill that goes before the House of Commons cannot be considered a mere «rough draft». It is a lot more than this. Even at this seemingly early stage of its «life», the 9)___________ is what the government wants to become law. If a government has a large parliamentary 10)___________ in the House, a bill, even on its first reading, frequently passes with relative ease (assuming that it is not a controversial one) and with few, in any, amendments to it.

The First Reading is the first time that a bill goes before the House itself. The First Reading is, in fact, when a bill is introduced after which the bill is then put into print. Though the 11)___________ «First Reading» conjures up the image of a big parliamentary event, it is really the opposite in that nothing actually 12)___________ other than the fact a bill goes before Parliament. As the bill is not in a printed format at this time, MP’s 13)___________ do little about assessing content etc. From this purely formal introduction, the bill then gets a Second Reading.

By the 14)___________ of the Second Reading, MP’s have access to the detail of the bill and it is in the Second Reading that MP’s have the chance for a wide-ranging discussion on a bill’s merits or otherwise. Usually, though not 15)___________, a parliamentary day is )___________ over to a Second Reading, which usually corresponds to about six hours of discussion. More controversial bills have been known to be given 16)___________ days of parliamentary time –  about eighteen hours.

Traditionally, a government minister opens a Second Reading while his/her opposite number on the Opposition Benches replies. From here, backbench MP’s join in the debate. When it 17)___________ to closing the Second Reading, the minister concerned does this. The debate in the House in controlled by either the Speaker of the Deputy Speaker. Controversial bills may proceed to a vote at a Second Reading. It is almost certain that a government with a decent Parliamentary majority will win this as the bill 18)_________ what that government wants and the party whips would ensure that a smooth vote takes place. From the Second Reading, the bill moves onto to the Committee Stage.


3. Read the following article and make a rendering of it in English.


Судебная власть – это самостоятельная независимая ветвь государственной власти, осуществляемая судами, которые выполняют возложенные на них законом полномочия посредством установленного судопроизводства. В соответствии с Конституцией РФ судебная власть осуществляется посредством конституционного, гражданского, административного и уголовного судопроизводства.

Как вид власти судебную власть теоретически нельзя отождествлять с судами, судебной системой. Судебной властью надлежит считать не орган (суд) или должностное лицо, а то, что они могут и в состоянии сделать, какими для этого способностями и возможностями обладают.

Одна из важнейших функций судебной власти –  осуществление правосудия, т. е. производимой в процессуальном порядке правоприменительной деятельности суда по рассмотрению и разрешению гражданских, административных и уголовных дел, а также экономических споров в целях охраны прав и интересов граждан, организаций и государства.

Контролирующие полномочия судебной власти реализуются в первую очередь в форме контроля за соответствием федеральных законов, законов субъектов РФ и нормативных актов всех уровней положениям Конституции РФ, осуществляемым Конституционным Судом РФ. Широко осуществляется нормоконтроль и судами общей юрисдикции всех уровней.

Контролирующие функции судебной власти реализуются также в форме контроля за законностью решений местных представительных и всех исполнительных органов, в государственном управлении путем:

•рассмотрения жалоб граждан и организаций на действия и решения органов (должностных лиц), нарушения их прав и свобод, жалоб и протестов на постановления по делам об административных правонарушениях;

•проверки при рассмотрении уголовных дел качества предварительного расследования;

•рассмотрения жалоб и протестов о признании незаконными правовых актов управления;

•проверки при рассмотрении уголовных, гражданских, административных дел законности и дисциплины в деятельности органов, организаций и их должностных лиц, законности правовых актов управления, имеющих значение для разрешения дела.

Контрольная деятельность также представляет собой:

•обеспечение исполнения приговоров, иныхсудебных решений;

•разбирательство и решение дел об административных правонарушениях подведомственным судам;

•разъяснение действующего законодательства по вопросам судебной практики;

•реализацию Верховным Судом РФ права законодательной инициативы.

Контроль за законностью и обоснованностью действий и решений всех исполнительных органов и органов государственного управления, правоохранительных органов в процессе выявления и раскрытия преступлений, задержания подозреваемых в совершении преступлений, их ареста, совершения действий, связанных с ограничением права гражданина на тайну переписки, телефонных переговоров, почтовых и иных сообщений, а также права на неприкосновенность жилища, правомерность прекращения уголовных дел и т. д., свидетельствуют о том, что судебная власть –  равновесная ветвь среди других ветвей государственной власти.


Part 3



The personnel that handles the day running of the country and provide leadership in terms of the direction of government policy and responses to events. Headed by the PM but also includes cabinet ministers, junior ministers, members of the senior ranks of the civil service and informally specialist advisors. By definition executive will usually command a majority in the Commons (either single party or part of a coalition  current example 2010 Con Dem Coalition) unless it is a caretaker/ minority administration –  based on concept of a fusion of legislative and executive branches of government and powers. Ministers must be in Parliament, large majority MPs but outside experts can be brought in by being given a peerage.

The Prime Minister

Performs 3 key roles – leader of nation, head of government, and usually party leader (note the latter 2 can conflict). Basis of powers around royal prerogative that by convention unchecked by legislature. Note Brown’s proposals to open this up already established convention of Commons votes prior to troop deployment (following on from 2003 Iraq vote).

Formal powers – appointment (ministers, peers, senior civil servants, bishops and veto on senior judges – note Cameron and need to consult Clegg on Lib Dem appointments), signing foreign treaties and deploying troops abroad and heading cabinet. Note that power of dissolution has been suspended by Fixed Term Parliament Act. Not formally limited checks on these but in reality political pressures can limit scope for movement (e.g. cabinet appointment and reshuffles and parliamentary ratification of treaties). Degree of authority (informal powers) can impact upon exercise of PM power affected by public opinion, size of government majority and government and party unity. Compare Blair pre Iraq with post Iraq especially 2005 and also limits on Brown’s leadership (no direct mandate etc.). Cameron, without single party parliamentary majority lacks the «mandate» of other PMs.

Models of PM power (not formally part of syllabus) explain why some PMs are presidential in style (Blair and Thatcher – see Foley and Crossman) but others more collegiate (Major and Brown – see Jones) and some place emphasis on flexibility (Norton  personality and circumstance or King cycles of public opinion). Use evidence from the last 5 PMs to illustrate use of or limits on PM power. Note the special circumstances of Cameron, his relationship with Clegg and the difficulty of managing a coalition.

The Cabinet

Central executive coordinating committee consisting of Ministers of state for each department and other senior government figures such as the Chief Whip and Leader of the Lords. Note Burch’s 4 key functions confirmation, coordination, arbitration and information sum up more specific role (some informal such as check on PM power).

Relationship with PM debate over rise of presidential power resulting in decline of cabinet government –  note no formal constitutional change to the role of cabinet but extension in style of government (expansion of the central executive territory –  Marwick) and in particular the power base of the PM (increased use of special advisors and sofa style government, bi-lateral meetings used by Blair and replicated by Cameron), also increasing personalisation of politics with media focus on PM. Cabinet meetings –  number and length declined with PM still having capacity to set agenda sum up mood of meeting without a vote, steer contentious policies through cabinet committees. However cabinet constitutionally can overall PM («first among equals) and face them down (see Thatcher ERM and eventual pressure not to stand in 2nd ballot). Note also relationship not opposite  strong PM will have united and supportive cabinet behind them and a weak PM may suffer further from a divided and incompetent cabinet team. Note the way PMs operate according to circumstances (Cameron’s use of the «Quad» for economic decisions outside of full cabinet).

Collective responsibility – based on Ministerial code of Conduct applies to all ministers including most junior (also similar policy amongst shadow cabinet). Designed to present government unity in which all must abide by decision agreed in cabinet. When unable to must resign (see Iraq and more recently ministerial resignations over style of Brown government). Convention undermined by off the record briefings (e.g.Vince Cable over business plans), agreements to differ and free votes (AV referendum). Give examples!

Ministers and civil service

Role of Senior Civil Servants  primarily policy advising with duty based on the principles of permanence, neutrality and anonymity. Armstrong memorandum deemed their public service is as is defined by the incumbent government. This has been changed and the new Code for Civil Servants 2002 is more relevant.

Relationship with ministers – Minister has ultimate advantage of making the final decision setting the agenda, use of personal advisors and utilising the political weight of the government, however civil servants do have advantage of greater experience, gate keeping , single focus and numerical weight of numbers. Number of models about relationship ranging from traditional service, left wing partisan bias and «Yes Minster» bureaucratic. Nature of relationship has changed considerably. Highlight role of chief executives and the lack of anonymity (Theresa May’s relations with Brodie Clarke at Border Agency) and increasing politicisation (Gove’s appointment at DFE leading to resignation of 4 leading civil servants in that dept, etc).

Individual Ministerial Responsibility – another convention stemming from ministerial code of conduct. Ministers are politically accountable for the actions of their department( role responsibility) and their own conduct (personal responsibility). This accountability addressed through answering to Parliament (e.g. questions and committees) for their actions and those of their department, apologising for mistakes made and ultimately resignation. Convention seen to be undermined by hiving off responsibility to chief executives of executive agencies or civil servants (blaming policy delivery not formulation) or hiding behind collective responsibility. Note ministerial resignations mainly based around personal responsibility where loses confidence of PM (media and political pressure). Once again learn examples for each and DO NOT confuse with collective responsibility.

Key developments

Try and use contemporary examples for PM power and cabinet relations –  note Brown’s difficulties including Gurkha defeat and threat of defeat over part-privatisation of Post Office (Cameron hasn’t lost any parliamentary votes yet but rebellions from Lib Dems over tuition fees and threat from Tory back benchers over House of Lords reform). Also be aware of potential challenges in light of electoral setbacks (note My 3rd Council election results) and criticism from back benchers (e.g. Nadine Dorris’ out of touch posh boys comment). You must refer to the coalition government and the difficulties facing Cameron in achieving a consensus on divisive issues (Osborne’s negotiations over the 2012 budget show difficulties of «two party» government). Resignations are also more awkward (Clegg’s decision over replacement for David Laws) and the hire/fire powers of PM have been affected.



1. Sum up the main ides of the text and retell it in Russian.


2. Fill in the missing words from the box into the text below.

government different fundamental refers structure unsaid branch executive autonomy enhance achieve companion person power execute legislative construed bureaucracy chief


The executive branch of 1)___________ is that branch with exclusive power and responsibility for the everyday administration of the country. This branch implements the law. The distribution of power into 2)___________ branches of government is 3)___________ to the initiative of division of power. In some parts of the world (countries) the term executive 4)___________ to the government. Though, this practice fails to make a distinction between authoritarian and autonomous 5)___________ of the government. In the despotic systems (autocracy or complete dominion) where the diverse powers of government are 6)___________ by one person (small oligarchy) the executive branch stops to subsist in view of the fact that there is no other 7)___________ with which to divide up separate but equivalent governmental powers. The division of powers system is premeditated to allocate authority away from the 8)___________ branch. This is an effort to protect individual 9)___________ in reply to autocratic leadership throughout history. The executive officer is not hypothetical to create laws or construe them. Their chief role is to put into effect the laws as printed by the 10)___________ branch (legislature) and 11)___________ by the judicial branch. The head of this branch is President of United States of America. This branch also comprises of many departments (sub departments) and agencies.

Bureaucracy in United States refers to the executive branch of government. The congress has it own 12)___________, bureaucratic personnel that makes their budgets etc. The executive branch of United States consists of agencies and departments that receive inclinations from the President. The President (principal bureaucrat) is the directorial 13)___________ of executive branch. The lack of precise, exhaustive words in the Constitution unfolding the influence and responsibilities of the executive branch has specified President of United States an immense deal of suppleness to 14)___________ its dimension and capacity over the years. This flexibility is in stipulations of both the assortment of its power and the amount of departments and agencies engaged to 15)___________ its tasks. President is chosen every four years, and decides his/her vice president as a administration  16) ___________. The president is also serves as the commander-in-chief of the U.S. Armed Forces and is for all intents and purposes the 17)___________ in charge of the country. Once in a year the President must convey a State of the Union address to Congress, He may propose legislation to Congress, he may assemble Congress. He also has the 18)___________ to hire ambassadors to other countries. He has the power to select justices of Supreme Court and other federal judges. To 19)___________ and put into effect the laws of the United States he is expected with his Cabinet and other agencies.


3. Read the following article and make a rendering of it in English.


Исполнительная власть –  один из трех видов власти в странах с ее разделением. Конституция РФ содержит утверждение, что государственная власть в России разделяется на законодательную, исполнительную и судебную (Ст. 10). В чем различие этих трех видов власти и чем конкретно занимается каждая из них? Как выглядит структура каждого из названных видов власти в нашей стране? Сегодня в нашей статье речь пойдет об исполнительной власти.

Если с судебной властью все более или менее понятно (судебную власть составляет система судебных органов страны, в которые входят Верховный суд РФ, суды общей юрисдикции, арбитражные и конституционные суды), то с остальными двумя видами все обстоит не так просто.

Законодательная власть –   власть в области законодательства. Ею управляет отдельный орган, занимающийся разработкой законодательства. В РФ законодательная власть осуществляется Федеральным Собранием. Оно состоит из двух палат –  верхней и нижней. Верхняя называется Совет Федерации. Нижняя –  Государственная дума РФ. В субъектах России законодательная власть осуществляется Законодательными собраниями.

Исполнительная власть – одна из самостоятельных и независимых публичных властей в государстве. Реализуется как совокупность полномочий по управлению государственными делами, то есть представляет структуру органов, осуществляющих эти полномочия.

Система власти в РФ

Органами исполнительной власти осуществляется ее реализация. Это, как правило, назначаемые органы. Главная задача исполнительных органов власти –  выполнять положения Конституции, федеральных законов, иных нормативных актов. Исполнительная власть и законодательная власть должны быть строго разделены, чтобы не оказывать влияние друг на друга.

Субъекты исполнительной власти

С учетом федеративного устройства России выделяются следующие субъекты исполнительной власти:

1) Российская Федерация как демократическое федеративное государство, суверенитет которого распространяется на всю территорию РФ;

2) равноправные субъекты РФ: республики, края, области, города федерального значения, автономная область, автономные округа.

С точки зрения осуществления государственного управления субъектами исполнительной власти в Российской Федерации являются: 1) Президент Российской Федерации; 2) Правительство Российской Федерации; 3) федеральные органы исполнительной власти (федеральные министерства, федеральные службы и федеральные агентства); 4) территориальные органы федеральных органов исполнительной власти; 5) главы исполнительной власти субъектов Российской Федерации (президенты, главы администраций); 6) правительства субъектов Российской Федерации; 7) иные органы исполнительной власти субъектов Российской Федерации.


Part 4



They maintain order, but try to forgo force. One day they’re investigating a crime. The next they’re providing area security in a combat zone.

Skilled at switching between roles in public order and war, military police have become leading players in the Army’s war on terrorism. So essential are MPs on today’s battlefield that recruits attending the Military Police School at Fort Leonard Wood, Mo., are almost certain to deploy from their first duty stations.

 «Most of them are only 18 or 19 years old, but these Soldiers know there’s a war going on. We’re putting them through the most stressful situations allowed so they’ll be ready»,  said CPT Douglas Clay, company commander for a recent class of trainees.

The minimum age to enter civilian law enforcement is typically 21. It’s just 18 for those committing to Uncle Sam. SFC Mark Ford, the school’s operations branch chief, said age doesn’t equal the degree of responsibility given to military police, who he believes bear more responsibility than their civilian counterparts.

«Law and order are just part of their five-piece mission. Their jobs can change focus daily, and they have to be flexible. But being multipurpose is what most of them enjoy about their jobs»,  Ford said.

Military police have the choice of two occupational specialties: basic combat support MP and corrections specialist. Training for each specialty lasts nine weeks, much of it at Fort Leonard Wood’s Stem Village, a mock town featuring confinement facilities, residential structures, a bank and a theater.

Law-enforcement training starts with instruction on Miranda rights and military law, then proceeds to evidence collection, search and apprehension, police reports and forms, vehicle inspection, traffic directing and convoy escorts, interrogations and interviews, and response to such incidents as suicide attempts, rape, damage to private property and domestic abuse.

MPs specializing in corrections branch off to hone skills they’ll need for running correctional and confinement facilities like the U.S. Army Confinement Facility-Europe at Coleman Barracks in Mannheim, Germany. Topics include the Army’s correctional system, custody and confinement procedures, and prisoner administration.

Whether assigned to a police station, a confinement facility or deployed to a combat zone, MPs must know how to give verbal commands, and conduct prone-position and wall searches. The ability to use force can seem a necessity for MPs, who may need to physically restrain perpetrators.

But it’s technique –   not strength or violence –   that they use to control subjects.

«Unarmed self-defense is all about executing the right moves and striking in the right places. Body size and strength have nothing to do with it»,  said drill sergeant SSG Michael Baker.

And though handcuffing may appear simple, Soldiers spend hours learning how and where to place handcuffs on both compliant and noncompliant subjects.

«When we apprehend someone, we’re liable for their safety»,  Ford said.

Instruction on urban warfare, for example, has gone from one day to four. Rising populations and urban growth make it essential, instructors said.

«At some level, we’re always going to have boots on the ground, and we’re always going to need to fight and survive in cities –   no matter what job specialty Soldiers have»,  said CPT Chris Heberer, instructor for the MP Officer Basic Course.

Half the challenge of urban warfare is being prepared for all the variables. The other half is anticipating what will be on the other side of the door getting kicked down, or whether the enemy will lurk around the next corner or hover on a rooftop. MPs providing security and reconnaissance operations in Iraq have also encouraged the addition of mobile-fire training. Beyond qualification on the 9mm pistol, recruits now head to the range to practice firing Mk.

19 grenade launchers and M-249s machine guns from atop moving vehicles.

«We’re shoulder to shoulder with combat-arms Soldiers», Heberer said. «Commanders are realizing that we have a lot of knowledge and expertise to contribute, and that an MP platoon brings an incredible amount of firepower to the battle».

They can also be a less threatening presence than tanks and infantry. It’s their subdued yet persuasive presence most Army planners value on the battlefield.

The media’s spotlight on the abuse of enemy prisoners of war at the U.S.– controlled Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq last spring shocked most MPs, said SSG John Fair, who teaches EPW handling to recruits. But trainees are as confident as ever, he said.

«We’re here to learn everything we can about doing our jobs as professionally as possible»,  said PV2 Richard Carpenter of himself and classmates. «We haven’t let the bad press or the actions of a few bad Soldiers affect us».

While the initial encounter between MPs and EPWs can be hostile, trainees are taught to let up on force once prisoners are seized and under control. They learn to treat prisoners respectfully –   the same way MPs are expected to treat military members apprehended in garrison environments.

MPs are also responsible for feeding and clothing EPWs. And in the case of an attack, they must also defend prisoners. The Army’s focus on the treatment of EPWs has not changed since last spring’s controversy, Fair said.

«The doctrine has not changed. The mission has not changed, and training has not changed».

 «It’s not often that you get a young adult of 18 with the authority that a military police Soldier has»,  said COL George Millan, director of training at the MP school. «It takes someone with maturity and common sense in dealing with people».

MPs took a high-profile role in the war soon after the terrorist attack on Sept. 11, 2001. The New York National Guard’s 442nd MP Company, for example, contributed to rescue-and-recovery efforts at the World Trade Center following the attack. The unit also provided security in New York City’s mass transit systems. And last April, the 442nd’s Soldiers returned from a year of duty in Iraq, where they trained Iraqi police.

«Law enforcement is something most of us do every day because we have a large number of civilian police officers in the unit»,  said company commander CPT Sean O’Donnell. «Most Iraqis had heard about the NYPD, so they wanted to learn as much from us as they could. Our experience enabled us to provide some of the most current training available».

The demand for MPs on the battlefield and in garrison has been taxing for active-duty and reservecomponent Soldiers. Thousands of Guard and Reserve members in artillery units have been reclassified as MPs and stationed at bases throughout the United States and Germany, while active-duty MPs remain in Iraq. The Army has also enacted the Stop-Loss Program to keep active– and reserve-component MPs from dropping off the rolls.

Future plans for the MP Corps include the creation of entire companies that specialize in detainee operations.

«This need goes back to Afghanistan, where we found that we just didn’t have enough Soldiers with that type of skill set»,  Millan said.

And as missions change, so will training. New batches of instructors will arrive from deployments around the globe, and their experiences will shape course development.

«New instructors will come to us with the knowledge of what the textbooks tell us to do, as well as what Soldiers are actually doing in war, where they’re updating tactics on the move»,  Heberer said. «We’ll continue to incorporate those lessons learned to save lives».

«An MP’s job can be stressful with so much responsibility entrusted to him»,  O’Donnell said. «MPs must make decisions on an independent basis, and not rely on being steered by leaders».

«It’s not just a sense of authority that attracts men and women to the MP Corps»,  O’Donnell said. «We’re all common in the sense that we want to help and serve others. We’re selfless by choice».



1. Sum up the main ides of the text and retell it in Russian.


2. Fill in the missing words from the box into the text below.

revisit directors after enforcement equipment director came armored among targeted administration protect communities gear attention law tracked


The White House will 1)_________ a 2015 ban on police forces getting riot gear, armored vehicles and other military-grade equipment from the U.S. armed forces, two police organization 2)_________ told Reuters on Thursday.

Shortly 3)_________ the recent shooting deaths of police officers, President Barack Obama agreed to review each banned item, the two law 4)_________ leaders said.

That could result in changes to the ban imposed in May 2015 on the transfer of some 5)_________ from the military to police, said Jim Pasco, executive director of the Fraternal Order of Police, and Bill Johnson, executive 6)_________ of the National Association of Police Organizations.

Last year's ban 7)_________ after a public outcry over police in cities, such as Ferguson, Missouri, using military-grade riot gear and 8)_________ vehicles during protests against police brutality.

Both Pasco and Johnson were 9)_________ eight police organization chiefs who met with Obama and Vice President Joe Biden at the White House on July 11. That was three days after a shooter 10)_________ and killed five police officers in Dallas.

Following the meeting, three officers were killed in Baton Rouge on July 17.

A White House official said the 11)_________ regularly reviews what military equipment can be transferred to police and that current rules ensure police get «the tools that they need to 12)_________ themselves and their 13)_________ while at the same time providing the level of accountability that should go along with the provision of federal equipment».

 Pictures of police in riot 14)_________ and driving armored vehicles toward peaceful protesters sparked a national debate that drew 15)_________ to a program used by the U.S. military to unload its excess equipment on local police.

At last week's meeting, 16)_________ enforcement leaders urged Obama to reinstate military equipment such as helmets, grenade launchers and 17)_________ armored vehicles to enhance officers' safety and their ability to respond to violent riots.


3. Read the following article and make a rendering of it in English.


Крупные силы мексиканской армии введены в штат Мичоакан на западе страны для борьбы с наркоторговцами. Более пяти тысяч вооруженных автоматами военнослужащих установили блокпосты на всех дорогах штата.

Проводятся аресты сотрудников муниципальной полиции, которых подозревают в связях с наркоторговцами. Губернатор Мичоакана выразил протест против того, что он назвал «военной оккупацией» штата. Мичоакан уже долгое время служит перевалочным пунктом для транзита южноамериканского кокаина в США. Поводом для начала крупнейшей войсковой операции стали совершенные на прошлой неделе нападения банд наркоторговцев на 10 городов. Кроме того расследуется убийство 12 федеральных агентов, чьи тела были найдены около крупной автотрассы. Власти подозревают в причастности к их пыткам и убийству местных полицейских, связанных действующей в Мичоакане группировкой наркоторговцев, известной как «Семья». Арестованы 10 муниципальных полицейских, также взяты под стражу мэры 10 городов штата.