REVIEW units 1 -2
1. Match the word/phrase to its definition.
2. Do the quiz.
1. When do Acts of Parliament come into force?
a) Acts of Parliament always come into force at the beginning of the day on which Royal assent is given.
b) Acts of Parliament always come into force on the date of the Royal Assent.
c) Acts of Parliament always come into force on a date specified by the minister responsible for the passage of the Act.
d) Acts of Parliament come into force on the date of the Royal Assent, unless another commencement date is expressly stated.
2. When a new principle of law is established by the judges in a case, the operation of the principle is both ____________ and prospective, in the sense of applying to the future.
3. A consolidating Act brings together all statutory provisions and case law on a particular subject area.
4. In criminal trials if the burden of proof is placed on a defendant, the standard of proof is that of beyond reasonable doubt.
5. Which of the following statements concern civil proceedings? Please select all that apply.
a) The burden of proof generally falls on a claimant in civil proceedings.
b) The standard of proof applicable is that of the balance of probabilities.
c) Following a civil trial a defendant may be found to be liable.
d) The standard of proof applicable is that of beyond reasonable doubt.
6. In criminal proceedings an indictable offence must be tried before the Crown Court.
7. In the civil process the two courts of trial are the county courts and the ____ Court.
8. Which of the courts below exercise appellate jurisdiction? Please select all that apply.
a) The High Court.
b) The Crown Court.
c) Magistrates' courts.
d) House of Lords
9. The decision to prosecute in criminal cases investigated by the police is taken by the _____ ___________ _______.
10. Identify the main permanent body established to keep the law under review with «a view to its systematic development and reform».
a) Royal Commissions.
b) The Ministry of Justice.
c) The Law Commission.
d) The courts.
You are going to watch talking
Tom Stranger: In 1996, when I was 18 ________ old, I had the golden opportunity to go on an international exchange program. Ironically I'm an Australian who prefers proper ________ cold weather, so I was both excited and tearful when I got on a plane to Iceland, after just having farewelled my parents and brothers goodbye. I was welcomed into the home of a beautiful Icelandic ________ who took me hiking, and helped me get a grasp of the melodic Icelandic language. I ________ a bit with the initial period of homesickness. I snowboarded after school, and I slept a lot. Two hours of chemistry class in a language ________ you don't yet fully understand can be a pretty good sedative.
My teacher recommended I try out for the school play, just to get me a bit more socially active. It turns out I didn't end up being part of the play, but through it I met Thordis. We ________ a lovely teenage romance, and we'd meet at lunchtimes to just hold hands and walk around old downtown Reykjavík. I met her welcoming family, and she met my friends. We'd been in a budding relationship for a ________ over a month when our school's Christmas Ball was held.
Thordis Elva: I was 16 and in love for the first time. Going together to the Christmas dance was a public confirmation of our relationship, and I ________ like the luckiest girl in the world. No longer a ________, but a young woman. High on my newfound maturity, I felt it was only natural to try drinking rum for the first time that night, too. That was a bad idea. I became very ill, drifting in and out of ________ in between spasms of convulsive vomiting. The security guards wanted to call me an ambulance, but Tom acted as my knight in shining armor, and told them he'd take me home.
It was like a fairy tale, his strong arms around me, laying ________ in the safety of my bed. But the gratitude that I felt towards him soon turned to horror as he proceeded to ________ off my clothes and get on top of me. My head had cleared up, but my body was still too weak to fight back, and the pain ________ blinding. I thought I'd be ________ in two. In order to stay sane, I silently counted the seconds on my alarm clock. And ever since that night, I've known that there are 7,200 seconds in two hours.
Despite ________ for days and crying for weeks, this incident didn't fit my ideas about rape like I'd seen on TV. Tom wasn't an armed lunatic; he ________ my boyfriend. And it didn't happen in a seedy alleyway, it happened in my own bed. By the time I ________ identify what had happened to me as rape, he had completed his exchange program and left for Australia. So I told myself it was pointless to address what had happened. And besides, it had to have been my fault, somehow.
2. After watching the video say in what context the following words and phrases were mentioned.
· a nine-year period
· Denial and Running
· static and silent
· a surfer, a social science student
· nine years after the Christmas dance
· 25 years old
· wandered into a café
· an eight-year-long correspondence
· nearly 16 years after that dire night
· South Africa
· Cape Town
· an open-chested vulnerability
· wanting to take revenge is a very human emotion
· to my loving husband, Vidir, and our son
· Thordis's body
3. Say if these statements are true or false. Thordis Elva and Tom Stranger said:
1. TE: Nine years after the Christmas dance, I was 25 years old, and headed straight for a nervous breakdown.
2. I always had a notebook with me, claiming that it was to jot down ideas in moments of inspiration, but the truth was that I needed to be constantly fidgeting, because in moments of stillness, I found myself counting seconds again.
3. This marked the start of an eight-year-long correspondence that God knows was never easy, but always honest.
4. TS: Iceland and Australia are geographically like this. In the middle of the two is South Africa.
5. We decided upon the city of Cape Town, and there we met for one week.
6. The city itself proved to be a stunningly powerful environment to focus on reconciliation and forgiveness.
7. Nowhere else has healing and rapprochement been tested like it has in South Africa. As a nation, South Africa sought to sit within the truth of its past, and to listen to the details of its history.
8. TE: Wanting to take revenge is a very human emotion – instinctual.
9. I read somewhere that you should try and be the person that you needed when you were younger.
10. TS: From what I've now learnt, my actions that night in 1996 were a self-centered taking. I felt deserving of Thordis's body. I've had primarily positive social influences and examples of equitable behavior around me. But on that occasion, I chose to draw upon the negative ones.