REVIEW units 13-15
1. Match the word/phrase to its definition.
2. Do the quiz.
1. The _________ has introduced major changes to the ways in which legal aid is delivered.
2. The _________ administers both the Community Legal Service scheme and the Criminal Defence Service scheme, providing advice and representation in civil and criminal cases respectively.
3. Which of the following are funded by the Legal Services Commission in civil cases? Please select all that apply.
a) Legal Help.
b) Help at Court.
c) Police Station Advice and Assistance.
d) Advocacy Assistance.
4. A conditional fee agreement and a contingency fee agreement are the same.
5. Public Defenders are employed directly by the Legal Services Commission to undertake civil defence work.
You are going to watch Olivier Scalabre analyzing the evolution of large industrial companies' manufacturing footprint and operations. 1. Fill in the missing information after watching the video.
Growth is fading _______, and it's a big deal. Our global economy stops growing. And it's not new. Growth has actually declined for the last _______ years. If we continue like this, we need to learn how to live in a world with no growth in the next decade. This is _______ because when the economy doesn't grow, our children don't get better lives. What's even scarier is that when the pie does not grow, each of us get a smaller piece. We're then ready to fight for a bigger one. This creates _______ and serious conflicts. Growth matters a lot.
If we look at the history of growth, times of big _______ have always been fueled by big manufacturing revolutions. It happened three times, every 50-60 years. The steam _______ in the middle of the 19th century, the mass-production model in the beginning of the 20th century – thanks, Mr. Ford. And the first automation wave in the 1970s.
Why did these manufacturing revolutions create huge growth in our economies? Because they have injected huge productivity _______. It's rather simple: in order to grow, you need to be producing more, putting more into our economy. This means either more labor or more capital or more productivity. Each time, productivity _______ been the growth lever.
I'm here today to tell you that we are on the verge of another huge change, and that this change, surprisingly enough, is going to come from manufacturing, again. It will get us out of our growth slump and it will change radically the way globalization has been shaped over the last _______. I'm here to tell you about the amazing fourth manufacturing revolution that is currently underway.
It's not as if we've done nothing with manufacturing since the last revolution. Actually, we've made some pretty lame attempts to try to revitalize it. But none of them have been the _______ overhaul we really need to get us growing again. For example, we've tried to relocate our factories offshore in _______ to reduce cost and take advantage of cheap labor. Not only did this not inspire productivity, but it _______ saved money for a short period of time, because cheap labor didn't stay cheap for long. Then, we've tried to make our factories larger and we specialized them by product. The idea was that _______ _______make a lot of one product and stockpile it to be sold with demand.
This did help productivity for a while. But it introduced a lot of rigidities in our supply chain. Let's take fashion retail. Traditional clothing companies have built offshore, global, _______ supply chains. When fast-fashion competitors like Zara started replenishing their stocks faster from two collections a year to one collection a month, none of them have been able to keep up _______ the pace. Most of them are in great difficulties today.
2. After watching the video say in what context the following words and phrases were mentioned.
· 50 years ago
· just changed the location
· all the tweaks to the model that we could
· the Internet
· produce growth
· the entertainment spaces
· much for productivity
· scrolling through Facebook, watching videos on YouTube has made us less productive
· we failed at reinventing the manufacturing space
· combine those forces
3. Say if these statements are true or false.
1. The fourth manufacturing revolution is happening right now.
2. Major technologies are entering the manufacturing space.
3. Today in our factories, only 8 percent of the tasks are automated.
4. By 2025, advanced robots will complement workers to be, together, 20 percent more productive, to manufacture 20 percent more outputs, to achieve 20 percent additional growth.
5. Last year in the US, they helped Amazon prepare and ship all the products required for Cyber Monday, the annual peak of online retail.
6. Last year in the US, it was the biggest online shopping day of the year and of history.
7. Consumers spent 3 billion dollars on electronics that day. That's real economic growth.
8. Plastic and metals represent 25 percent of global manufacturing production.
9. Aerospace companies are now using 3D printing, which allows them to turn those 20 different parts into just one.
10. Advanced robots can be programmed in order to perform any product configuration without any setup time or ramp up. 3D printers instantaneously produce any customized design.
11. Not only will manufacturing become more productive, it will also become more flexible, and those were exactly the elements of growth that we are missing. There are even some bigger implications for all of us when manufacturing will find its way back into the limelight. It will create a huge macroeconomic shift.
12. Globalization will enter a new era. The East-to-West trade flows will be replaced by regional trade flows. East for East, West for West. When you think about that, the old model was pretty much insane.
13. The new model, producing just next to the consumer market, will be much cleaner, much better for our environment.
14. In mature economies, manufacturing will be back home, creating more employment, more productivity and more growth.