REVIEW units 1 -2



REVIEW units 3 -4



REVIEW units 5 -6



REVIEW units 7-8



REVIEW units 9-10



REVIEW units 11 -12




REVIEW units 13-15







Part 1



Law is one of the most popular and competitive fields to enter so it is vital that you gain work experience to demonstrate your commitment.

Solicitors provide expert legal support and advice to clients. You'll take instructions from clients and advise on necessary courses of legal action. Clients can be individuals, groups, public sector organisations or private companies.

Depending on your area of expertise, you can advise on a range of issues, including:

•personal issues: buying and selling residential property, landlord and tenant agreements, wills and probate, divorce and family matters, personal injury claims and criminal litigation

•commercial work: helping new enterprises get established, advising on complex corporate transactions (including mergers and acquisitions) and business-related disputes

•protecting the rights of individuals: making sure they receive compensation if unfairly treated by public or private bodies.

Once qualified, you can work in private practice, in-house for commercial or industrial organisations, in local or central government or in the court service.

The actual work carried out varies depending on the setting, your specialist area and the nature of the case.

You may use some of your time to give free help to clients who are unable to pay for legal services themselves. This is known as pro bono work.

Solicitors can specialise in numerous practice areas and these can often determine the firms you apply to when you graduate.

Core areas of law include European Union (EU), constitutional, contract, criminal, land, public and tort law but these are by no means your only options.

You can also specialise in a range of areas including:





•equity and trusts


•human rights

• intellectual property




For a comprehensive breakdown of what the different types of law involve, see areas of law.

As a solicitor, you'll need to:

•meet and interview clients to establish the firm's suitability to provide the necessary advice and services, based on the firm's specialism and likely cost

•take a client's instructions

•advise a client on the law and legal issues relating to their case

•draft documents, letters and contracts tailored to the client's individual needs

•negotiate with clients and other professionals to secure agreed objectives

•research and analyse documents and case law to ensure the accuracy of advice and procedure

•supervise the implementation of agreements

•coordinate the work of all parties involved

•correspond with clients and opposing solicitors

•attend meetings and negotiations with opposing parties

•act on behalf of clients in disputes and represent them in court, if necessary

•instruct barristers or specialist advocates to appear in court for the client in complex disputes

•prepare papers for court

•work in a team, sometimes referring cases to the head of department

•supervise and delegate work to trainee solicitors, paralegals and legal secretaries as appropriate

•arrange and attend further client meetings where necessary to progress with the case and finalise documentation

•check all documentation prior to signing and implementing

•calculate claims for damages, compensation, maintenance, etc

•carry out administrative duties, e.g. completing time sheets so that charges for work can be calculated and billing clients for work done on their behalf

•take referrals from other firms of solicitors when a conflict of interest arises or if they have no specialist practitioner available

•keep up to date with changes and developments in the law by reading journals and law reports.

Type of cases and specialist area, location and employer can all affect your levels of pay.

•Starting salaries for qualified solicitors in a regional firm or smaller commercial practice range from £25,000 to £40,000.

•Starting salaries in larger commercial firms and in the City can range from £58,000 to £65,000. Larger City firms may pay £80,000 or more.

•Partners in large firms or heads of in-house legal departments can earn in excess of £100,000. Equity partners will also receive a share of the firm's profits.

Long working hours are common. During busy periods you will be expected to work 12-hour days and weekend work may be occasionally required. Solicitors in the largest City firms tend to work unsocial and longer hours on a more regular basis.

What to expect:

•Your work is generally office based but you may have to travel to meet clients or to attend court. Overnight absence from home may occasionally be necessary.

•Opportunities are available throughout the country, although larger firms tend to establish their practices close to commercial areas and town centres. Most commercial firms are based in Central London, or in large cities such as Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham, Bristol and Cardiff.

•You should be smartly dressed when interviewing clients or attending court.

•The work can be hard and stressful, although firms may offer support to combat high stress levels.

•Work in overseas offices may be possible, advising local clients on English, EU or foreign law.



1. Sum up the main ides of the text and retell it in Russian.


2. Fill in the missing words from the box into the text below.

provide public accurately establishments administrators firms construction members range frustrating solicitor


Solicitors 1)__________ clients with legal advice and representation on all legal matters. Most work in private practice but commercial and industrial organisations also employ solicitors, as do the Civil Service and the 2)__________ sector generally. The work of solicitors varies as widely as the community they serve and will normally depend on their employers.

Solicitors could 3)__________ be described as general practitioners of the law. Their role is to provide a broad service to individuals, families, businesses, large companies, corporations and organisations and 4)__________ of every nature. As consultants to their clients, they dispense legal advice and information; as executors and  5)__________, they process and implement legal procedures and transactions. The work is generally very varied. Some solicitors’ firms will specialise in a few areas, while other practices will deal with every conceivable legal issue.

Solicitors’ firms can range hugely in size, from one sole practitioner (rare) to very large international 6)__________ employing hundreds of legal practitioners. Larger firms are more likely to specialise, either in legal areas such as corporate mergers, acquisitions or tax, or in certain industry sectors such as IT, 7)__________ or banking. Smaller firms often work very much as the general practitioners, dealing with family 8)__________, small business owners, farmers, property owners and so on.

Most newly qualified solicitors remain with the firms they trained with for their first year. The  9)__________ of opportunities for young solicitors is widening, enabling them to make big career moves at an early stage.

Young solicitors can expect to work very hard. Long hours and the unrealistic expectations of clients are amongst the most 10)__________ aspects of working as a 11)__________. The responsibilities of a role are the most important aspect for solicitors when they consider changing jobs.


3. Read the following article and make a rendering of it in English.


До начала 1990-х понятия «юридическая карьера» практически не существовало. Советская образовательная система выпускала в основном юристов-правоведов широкого профиля для плановой экономики и для правоохранительной системы. По меткому выражению Валерия Сиднева, это был «вспомогательный персонал для той половины страны, которая «сидит» (или готовится к тому, чтобы «сесть»), или кадровый состав тех, кто «сажает» и «бережет»«.

Валерий Сиднев, начальник юридического департамента компании «ЕвроХим»: «Избранные (при наличии связей) становились судьями, прокурорами или адвокатами. Немногие могли заниматься преподавательской и научно-правовой работой. Основная часть влачила полунищенское существование в качестве отнюдь не престижных в обществе юрисконсультов государственных ведомств и предприятий. «Широкий» профиль образования подразумевал подготовку и последующее использование «многостаночников», обрабатывающих потребности плановой системы без уточнения «знает –   не знает, умеет –   не умеет». Развитие компетенций по отдельным отраслям права не приветствовалось. Накопление материальных ценностей порицалось, любая предпринимательская инициатива табуировалась как не соответствующая моральному облику строителя коммунизма. Функционал юрисконсультов ограничивался рутинными судебно-претензионными делами и обработкой документов предприятий, на которых они работали. Они могли консультировать работников своих предприятий по скромному перечню вопросов, но им воспрещалось получать вознаграждение за такие консультации –   подобные попытки сурово карались системой. Юрисконсульт не участвовал в принятии управленческих решений, работал за фиксированную зарплату (около 150 рублей в месяц, что было гораздо меньше заработков «гегемона») и не имел никаких перспектив карьерного роста. В то время я сам был таким юрисконсультом, поэтому знаю ситуацию не понаслышке» .

Численность адвокатов была небольшой (примерно один адвокат на 10 – 15 тыс. человек). Они имели относительную автономность и зарабатывали значительно больше других представителей юридических профессий, поскольку получали гонорар, а не фиксированную зарплату или оклад, как остальные. Адвокатура предоставляла своим лучшим членам перспективы карьерного роста в рамках собственной системы на уровне адвокатуры СССР или союзных республик, они могли избираться в исполнительные органы своих коллегий. Однако, стать адвокатом было не так-то просто.


Part 2


You'll need an analytical mind, a logical approach and a high level of attention to detail to succeed in this demanding and highly rewarding career

Barristers (in England and Wales) are specialists in advocacy and represent individuals or organisations in court. They are independent sources of legal advice and can advise clients on their case. Generally, they are hired by solicitors to represent a case in court and only become involved once advocacy before a court is needed.

As a barrister you'll plead the case on behalf of your client and the client's solicitor. Members of the public can also go directly to a barrister to ask for advice and representation in court.

Most barristers work on a self-employed basis, while others work in government departments or agencies such as the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) and the Government Legal Service (GLS).

An increasing number of employed barristers work in private and public organisations, such as charities.

If you're self-employed you'll work in offices called chambers, you could have your own office or share one with other barristers.

In Scotland, advocates have a comparable role and have rights of audience in all Scottish courts.

You'll usually specialise in a particular area of law such as:

•chancery law (estates and trusts)

•commercial law

•common law (includes family, housing and personal injury law)

•criminal law

•entertainment law

•sports law.

Work activities depend on a range of factors, including the area of practice. However, you'll generally be involved in the following tasks:

•taking instruction from clients and their solicitors

•understanding and interpreting the law

•mastering and managing legal briefs (cases)

•undertaking legal research into relevant points of law

•writing opinions and advising solicitors and other professionals

•preparing cases for court, including holding client conferences, preparing legal arguments, etc.

•advising clients on matters of law and evidence and the strength of their case

•representing clients in court

•presenting arguments in court

•examining and cross-examining witnesses

•summing up the reasons why the court should support their client's case

•drafting legal documents

•negotiating settlements

The area of a your practice will largely determine the balance and emphasis of these activities. For example:

•the work of a criminal barrister is likely to involve a lot of advocacy in court

•a family law barrister may be representing clients in court in a contact dispute or divorce case, but may also be involved in mediation as a way of avoiding the need to go to court

•barristers practising chancery/commercial law are generally in court far less than those in other practice areas and instead spend more time undertaking drafting and advisory work.

Employed barristers undertake similar activities for one company or client. At more senior levels, they may also become involved with the development of legal policy and strategy.

Barristers also contribute to the collective running and management of chambers, particularly with the recruitment of pupils and other tenants.


•Salaries for those undertaking pupillage (final stage of qualification for the Bar) must be no less than £12,000 per year, set by the Bar Standards Board (BSB). However, some chambers offer substantially more than the minimum and salaries can be up to £45,000 depending on the area of practice.

•Qualified barristers can earn anything from £25,000 to £300,000.

•Salaries in private practice for those with over ten years' experience can rise to £1,000,000.

•Salaries around £30,000 to £90,000 can be expected for barristers in the CPS or the GLS.

Salaries vary depending on a range of factors, including location, area of practice, experience, reputation and type of employer (self-employed or employed).

Earnings for barristers in the early stages of their career are sometimes extremely low and there may be a considerable delay between doing the work and receiving payment.



1. Sum up the main ides of the text and retell it in Russian.


2. Fill in the missing words from the box into the text below.

barrister apply strong applicants libraries pupillage necessary examinations finally must permission


A career as a 1)_________ is open to graduates in any subject, though non-law graduates have to undertake a law-conversion course before they can start professional training.

In 2017, the deadline to 2)_________ is the end of February and first and second round of interview offers will be sent out between February and April. Offers of pupillage will be made on 3 May 2017. Competition is very 3)_________, in terms of both academic standards and personal qualities, with an average of over three 4)_________ for every place, so it is important to apply in the first round. To find out more see the National Pupillage Fair.

By the end of May prior to starting the BPTC, it is also necessary to join one of the four Inns of Court. The Inns provide educational and social support for barristers and student barristers, including  5)_________, dining halls and common rooms. The choice of Inn does not affect the areas of legal practice open to you, or the choice of chambers for 6)_________ or tenancy applications, but if you have received a scholarship, you will be required to join the Inn that provided it. The student officer at each Inn will supply more information.

To become an advocate you need a Scottish law degree and the Scottish Diploma in Legal Practice. It is then 7)_________ to undertake a period of training (usually 21 consecutive calendar months) in a solicitor's office approved by the Faculty of Advocates.

After you have been formally admitted by the Faculty as an «intrant» (trainee advocate) and passed certain 8)_________, there comes a further eight-to-nine month period of practical training («devilling») with an experienced advocate (a «devilmaster») and 9)_________ a competency assessment, which includes written and oral advocacy skills.

Law graduates wishing to practise as a barrister in Northern Ireland should apply for the one-year barrister-of-law course at the Institute of Professional Legal Studies. After being called to the Bar, trainees 10)_________ undertake a 12-month pupillage with a Master. After three months barrister pupils are able to take on cases with the 11)_________ of the Education Committee. For more information see The Bar Library.


3. Read the following article and make a rendering of it in English.


Профессия юриста очень популярна и будет востребована всегда, пока существуют государственные системы, построенные на законодательно-правовых основах. Человек, владеющий тонкостями правовой организации и прекрасным знанием законов, необходим во всех сферах общественной жизни, экономики и политики.

Юрист –  это практический специалист в области юридических наук и права, обладающий соответствующим образованием и закрепленными за ним полномочиями. Основная работа юриста – защита прав и контроль над соблюдением законов. Профессия юриста объединяет специалистов разных правовых сфер, сюда входят нотариусы, адвокаты, судьи, прокуроры, юрисконсульты, специалисты налоговых, уголовных, гражданских, военных и других областей.

В соответствии с данными статистики ВЦИОМ, профессия юриста считается наиболее престижной среди российских граждан (20 %), а также наиболее доходной (14 %). Такое положение вещей подкрепляется и рейтингом удовлетворенности своей профессией, в котором юристы и адвокаты лидируют (80 баллов из 100). Несмотря на внешнюю привлекательность профессии, в ней имеется масса подводных камней. Многие выпускники юридических факультетов не работают по специальности из-за неадекватной оценки своих личностных качеств и нереалистичных представлений о повседневной деятельности юриста.

Юристу необходимо обладать развитой волей и повышенным чувством ответственности –  часто в его руках судьбы людей, и ошибки могут стоить очень дорого. Юристу нужен цепкий аналитический ум, отличная память, способность соотносить разные категории и факты, выделять причинно-следственные связи. Для работы требуется хорошая концентрация внимания, его переключаемость, внимательность, усидчивость, часто кропотливость.

Также в этой профессии не выживают люди с мягким характером. Юрист должен быть инициативен, настойчив, где-то даже напорист и обладать высокой степенью эмоциональной стабильности и стрессоустойчивости. Ну и важная деталь, которой в наше время часто пренебрегают, –  юрист должен обладать высокими моральными принципами и неподкупностью. Именно это делает его настоящим благородным борцом за права.

Типология и должностные обязанности

Адвокат. Осуществляет юридическую защиту интересов граждан в суде и других органах власти. Адвокат обязан следовать принципу независимости, подчиняясь только законодательству страны, которую он представляет. Поэтому ему запрещено находиться на какой-либо государственной или коммерческой службе, формирующей предвзятое отношение в ведении дел (исключение –  преподавательская, творческая или научная деятельность).

Нотариус. Обладает законодательно закрепленными за ним полномочиями по совершению нотариальных действий (свидетельствование подлинности документов, копий и пр.). Может состоять на государственной службе или иметь частную практику. Его деятельность регулируется лицензией.

Прокурор. Государственный служащий, сотрудник прокуратуры. Обязан осуществлять прокурорский надзор, координировать деятельность по предотвращению преступлений, участвовать в судопроизводстве и поддерживать при этом сторону государственного обвинения.

Следователь. Является сотрудником прокуратуры и следственных органов МВД. Осуществляет возбуждение, ведение и расследование уголовного дела вплоть до раскрытия преступления. Результаты работы предоставляет прокурору.

Судья. Обладает всей полнотой судебной власти, вершит суд, отслеживает исполнение законов.  Имеет законодательно закрепленную независимость, неприкосновенность и несменяемость. Подчиняется Федеральным законам и Конституции. Судье запрещается вести предпринимательскую деятельность, принадлежать к политическим движениям и партиям, избираться в депутаты.

Юрист-международник. Осуществляет помощь в правовых вопросах в международной и дипломатической деятельности. Обязан знать, помимо российского, международное право, владеть несколькими иностранными языками.

Юрисконсульт. Сотрудник государственной или коммерческой организации. Обеспечивает правовую помощь во всех внутренних вопросах, а также отслеживает соответствие законодательству деятельность самой организации, участвует в составлении договоров, работа с претензиями.


Part 3



A judge is an appointed or elected magistrate who presides over court proceedings. A judge rules on questions of law, acts as a referee between the litigating parties and renders decisions in legal disputes.

A judge performs a variety of tasks inside and outside the courtroom. In the courtroom, a judge hears allegations of the prosecuting and defending parties, listens to witness testimony, rules on the admissibility of evidence, informs defendants of their rights, instructs the jury, questions witnesses, and rules on motions presented by counsel.

In criminal court, judges determine the guilt or innocence of criminal defendants and impose sentences on defendants found guilty. In civil cases, a judge may determine liability or damages.

Outside the courtroom («in chambers»), a judge researches laws and regulations, issues opinions and case decisions, supervises the work of law clerks and other court staff, meets with attorneys to discuss cases and encourage settlement, and establishes court rules and procedures. Some judges perform marriage ceremonies and issue marriage licenses.

Most, but not all, judges possess law degrees. State and Federal judges typically complete the educational requirements to become a lawyer and work for several years as an attorney before entering the judicial system. Some judges are elected or appointed to serve on the bench for fixed terms. Training for judges and other judicial-branch personnel is provided by The Federal Judicial Center, American Bar Association, National Judicial College and National Center for State Courts.

Judges must possess excellent logical reasoning, analytical and decision-making skills in order to analyze complex case and statutory law and render sound legal decisions. Thorough knowledge of criminal and civil procedure, jurisdictional rules and the court system is critical. Top-notch writing ability is necessary to draft clear, concise, well-researched opinions, bench memoranda, and other legal documents.

Excellent mediation skills are also necessary to resolve discovery disputes and promote settlement between the parties.

Judges and magistrates earn a median salary of $101,690 per year, according to the Department of Labor, with the top 10 percent earning more than $145,600 and the bottom 10 percent earning less than $29,540. Generally, the highest paying judgeships are those within the Federal court system. Judges with limited jurisdiction, such as magistrates, generally earn the lowest salaries.

Overall employment is projected to grow more slowly than average, but varies by specialty, according to the U.S. Department of Labor. Due to the prestige associated with serving on the bench, competition for positions as judges and magistrates is intense. Although caseloads are increasing, budgetary issues may limit judicial hiring. Most job opportunities will arise through judicial retirement, promotion to higher judicial offices and the creation of new judgeships as authorized by law. Candidates with law degrees and/or legal experience and excellent academic credentials will find greater employment opportunities



1. Sum up the main ides of the text and retell it in Russian.


2. Fill in the missing words from the box into the text below.

roles pursuit opposing impartial claim right balance hear decides crime assesses


Judges play many 1)_________. They interpret the law, assess the evidence presented, and control how hearings and trials unfold in their courtrooms. Most important of all, judges are impartial decision-makers in the 2)_________ of justice. We have what is known as an adversarial system of justice – legal cases are contests between 3)_________ sides, which ensures that evidence and legal arguments will be fully and forcefully presented. The judge, however, remains above the fray, providing an independent and 4)_________ assessment of the facts and how the law applies to those facts.

Many criminal cases – and almost all civil ones – are heard by a judge sitting without a jury. The judge is the «trier of fact»,  deciding whether the evidence is credible and which witnesses are telling the truth. Then the judge applies the law to these facts to determine whether a civil 5)_________ has been established on a 6)_________ of probabilities or whether there is proof beyond a reasonable doubt, in criminal cases, that the suspect is guilty. Anyone who faces five years or more in prison if convicted of a crime has the 7)_________, under the Charter, to request a jury trial, and many defendants facing serious offences such as murder opt to have a jury 8)_________ their case. The jurors become the triers of fact and assess the evidence while the judge takes on the role of legal advisor, explaining the law to the jurors. The jurors then retire to deliberate on a verdict. In criminal cases the jury's verdict, either «Guilty» or «Not Guilty» must be unanimous.

If the defendant is convicted of a 9)_________, the judge passes sentence, imposing a penalty that can range from a fine to a prison term depending on the severity of the offence. In civil cases the judge 10)_________ whether a claim is valid and 11)_________ damages, grants an injunction or orders some other form of redress to the plaintiff, unless a jury has been empanelled to make these decisions.


3. Read the following article and make a rendering of it in English.


Профессия юриста предполагает обязательное высшее юридическое образование. Помимо этого часто требуется дополнительное образование в зависимости от специализации.

Адвокату: необходимо успешно пройти квалификационный экзамен в Адвокатской Палате, затем не менее года стажироваться в адвокатском деле. Полноценную работу адвоката можно получить со стажем от 2 лет.

Нотариусу: необходимо получить лицензию, которая выдается после успешной стажировки в одной из нотариальных контор и прохождения квалификационного экзамена.

Прокурору: необходимо пройти соответствующую специальную подготовку.

Судье: необходимо иметь юридический стаж от 5 лет, пройти соответствующий квалификационный экзамен. Судьей может стать человек от 25 лет.

По мере обучения в ВУЗе студенту необходимо определиться со своей специализацией и областью работы. Это могут быть разные области права: административное, уголовное, гражданское, экологическое, трудовое, налоговое, жилищное, международное, семейное, корпоративное право, а также вопросы интеллектуальной собственности и многое другое.

Юрист может работать:

•в государственных учреждениях – в судах и прокуратурах, в МВД и Министерстве юстиции и прочих государственных ведомствах;

•в коммерческих организациях – в юридических отделах различных компаний, в юридических фирмах и консультациях, в нотариальных бюро;

• вести частную практику (например, адвокаты).

Места работы юристов обычно прописаны согласно специализации и часто содержат некоторые ограничения в плане занятий альтернативной деятельностью. Научная, преподавательская и творческая деятельность разрешены без ограничений.

Карьера юриста напрямую зависит от личных качеств человека, от проницательности его ума и остроты мышления. Доскональное знание законодательства еще делает вас юристом. Талант этой профессии заключается в искусстве «прочтения» ситуации через призму закона, а на это уже не каждый способен. Также успешность карьеры обязательно требует постоянного развития и самосовершенствования профессиональных навыков. Просто тихо отсидеться на рабочем месте много лет в этой профессии не получится.

Вот какие перспективы у отдельных специалистов.

Юрисконсульт. Начинает карьеру с помощника юриста. Далее: юрисконсульт, старший юрисконсульт, ведущий и, наконец, главный юрисконсульт. Далее начальник отдела, начальник правового департамента. После 5 лет стажа юрисконсульт может пойти в смежную область и начать карьеру судьи.

Юрист-международник. Начинает карьеру в внешнеторговых и международных организациях, может специализироваться в области таможенного права, внешней торговли, финансов. Двигается по линии МИДа.

Адвокат. Его карьера зависит только от него самого: от количества выигранных дел, от его успешности и известности.

Следователь. Начинается карьера обычно в органах безопасности и МВД. Далее – работа в прокуратуре. Можно подняться до прокурора, а затем советника юстиции.