REVIEW units 1 -2



REVIEW units 3 -4



REVIEW units 5 -6



REVIEW units 7-8



REVIEW units 9-10



REVIEW units 11 -12




REVIEW units 13-15






Part 1



Unlike in other jurisdictions, there is no single codified source of civil law. English civil law is made up of legislation by Parliament and decisions by the courts. English courts interpret legislation and are usually required to follow decisions on the same issue made by a court of equivalent or higher status.

Legislation and decisions of the courts are subject to legislation adopted by the European Council and decisions of the European Court of Justice.

The court system

The English civil court system is divided between the High Court and the county courts. This guide addresses the procedure in the High Court, which deals largely with claims in excess of £50,000.

The High Court has jurisdiction over most matters through its District Registries and the Royal Courts of Justice in London. It is divided into three divisions: Chancery, Queen's Bench and Family.

The Chancery Division deals with companies generally and such specialist matters as wills, trusts, insolvency and tax. The Queen's Bench Division (QBD) deals with all other civil matters including contractual disputes, personal injury cases, industrial accidents, defamation cases and negligence claims. Both the Chancery Division and the QBD have specialist courts dealing in specific areas.  For example the QBD has two main specialist courts, the Commercial Court dealing with commercial disputes and the Technology and Construction Court which deals primarily with construction and technology disputes.

The Court of Appeal deals with appeals from a decision of a High Court judge. On issues of public importance there is a further and final stage of appeal, to the Supreme Court, where the appeal is heard usually by five Justices. Occasionally, matters may be referred to the European Court of Justice for guidance on points of EU law.

The legal profession is split between barristers, often referred to as «counsel», and solicitors. Barristers are specialist advocates who have the right to appear in the higher courts. They also draft documents for court and give opinions in particular areas of law in which they are expert. Barristers are self-employed and do not generally deal with clients directly. Senior barristers may be appointed as Queen's Counsel; all other barristers are known as juniors.

Solicitors have day-to-day contact with clients and have the main responsibility for handling cases. They may also appear as advocates in the higher courts if they are qualified to do so. Most commercial solicitors practise in partnership with other solicitors.

Although both barristers and solicitors are eligible for appointment as High Court judges, the majority of judges are barristers.

Civil Procedure Rules

The Civil Procedure Rules (CPR) were introduced in 1998 to govern the procedure that is followed within the English civil court system. The CPR requires that all cases are dealt with in a way that enables the court to deal with cases justly. This includes:

·        ensuring parties are on an equal footing;

·        dealing with the case in ways which are proportionate to the amount of money involved, the importance of the case, the complexity of the issues and the financial position of each party;

·        ensuring that the case is dealt with expeditiously and fairly.

This is known as the «overriding objective» of the CPR.

A typical claim dealt with by the High Court will take approximately 12-18 months to get to trial from the date of issue of the claim form.

Pre-action matters: before proceedings are issued, parties are required to act reasonably in exchanging information and documents in an attempt to settle their dispute without recourse to litigation. Sanctions may be imposed against parties who fail to comply with these requirement, for example, a party may be ordered to pay costs to the other party for failing to act reasonably. In addition there are a number of «pre-action protocols»  these set out the procedure to be followed in certain categories of dispute, such as construction or professional negligence.

Issuing proceedings and court documents: proceedings begin when the claimant issues a claim form that must contain or be accompanied by the particulars of claim. The claim form and particulars of claim must set out a summary of the basic facts of the claim against the defendant. Failing to do this may allow the defendant to strike out the claim. The claimant will have to pay a fee to issue the claim form, the amount of which depends on the value and nature of the claim. The documents have to be served on the defendant in accordance with special rules and within prescribed timeframes.

When the defendant is served with court proceedings, he has to indicate whether he accepts or intends to defend the claim. Again, this must be done within prescribed time limits and the court must be notified. If the defendant wishes to defend the claim he must serve a defence, including any counterclaim, normally within 28 days of receiving the claim form. This defence is also an important document because if it is regarded as weak, the claimant can seek to strike it out or seek summary judgment against the defendant. A failure to serve a defence will allow the claimant to win the case by default.

Further court documents may be served and filed at court in order to clarify each party's position. All court documents will be accompanied by a statement of truth verifying the truth of the information contained in the document – please see our separate OUT-LAW Guide for more information.

Court documents including the claim form, particulars of claim, defence and any counterclaim will, in certain circumstances, be accessible to third parties.

Case management: all cases are actively managed by the courts to ensure that they proceed properly. The courts will consider whether the likely benefits of taking a particular step will justify the cost.

Although it is at the discretion of the court, the general rule is that the unsuccessful party will be ordered to pay the costs of the successful party. Any breach of the CPR or the overriding objective may result in a costs sanction being imposed on the «offending» party even if that party is successful at trial overall. Generally, in the absence of unreasonable conduct, the successful party can expect to recover approximately 60-65% of its legal costs from the losing party.

It is also possible for parties to agree conditional fee agreements (CFAs) with their lawyers. A CFA allows a lawyer to charge a success fee on top of the normal fee if the case is successful, and either a reduced fee or no fee at all if the case is unsuccessful. The success fee may be payable by the other party. Contingency fees at present are prohibited.  There are also other methods of funding litigation, for example, legal expense insurance and third party funding.

When a judgement is obtained, the unsuccessful party may make payment voluntarily. If it does not, various enforcement procedures are available including arranging for assets to be seized and sold or obtaining a charging order over the unsuccessful party's property. There is also the option of forcing the party into insolvency if the judgement sum is not paid.

There are a number of strategic measures that may help the resolution of a case, including:

·        offers to settle –  while these can be made at any time in a dispute, the CPR gives the party making an offer to settle specific cost advantages provided that the offer meets prescribed requirements. For more information, please see our separate OUT-LAW Guide to Part 36 Offers;

·        offer to settle a dispute using ADR – a party who unreasonably refuses an offer to settle a case in this way may incur cost penalties;

·        injunctions in some cases it may be necessary to stop a party from doing something immediately or to preserve assets until after the trial. In appropriate cases, the court may grant an injunction to preserve the parties' positions until their rights have been determined. The applicant does not have to prove its underlying claim at the injunction hearing but must show that it has a good arguable claim and provide an undertaking to compensate the other party for any loss caused by the injunction being wrongly granted;

·        security for costs –  the usual costs rule is that the losing party will pay a substantial proportion of the winning party's legal costs. If the defendant is confident of successfully defending its claim but fears that the claimant will not or cannot pay any costs, it can apply to the court early in the proceedings for an order that the claimant provide security for any costs it may be liable to pay in certain circumstances.



1. Sum up the main ides of the text and retell it in Russian.


2. Fill in the missing words from the box into the text below.

management separate seeks documents adversely statements determine witness depositions duty court involved fraud draw generally consists evidence immediately seeks


Case 1)_________ also allows the court to try to encourage the parties to settle their disputes without the need for trial, through alternative dispute resolution procedures (ADR) such as mediation. Please see our 2)_________ OUT-LAW Guide for more information.

Disclosure of documents: a party must disclose to the other party the documents (including electronic documents, for example, e mails) it 3)_________ to rely on, as well as the documents which 4)_________ affect its own or another party's case or support another party's case. This may include confidential documents if they are relevant to the dispute. Certain 5)_________ may be exempt from disclosure on the grounds of «legal professional privilege» –  please see our separate OUT-LAW Guide for more information.

Witness 6)_________: if a party wants to provide oral evidence at trial, then it should disclose this evidence in written format. This can be a vital stage in the proceedings as what is said in a witness statement may be 7)_________ whether party seeks to settle the dispute. A witness statement should set out the facts to which the 8)_________ will testify at the trial. It must be certified to be true by the witness. Statements are exchanged several weeks before the trial.  Witnesses may be cross-examined by the other party's lawyer at trial; US style 9)_________ are not normally allowed in English proceedings. Please see our separate OUT-LAW Guide for more information.

Expert evidence: if a party needs to rely on the opinion of an expert on a particular issue, the court's permission will be needed. An expert witness must be independent, with an overriding 10)_________ to the court rather than the instructing party, and the 11)_________ can order the parties to share the evidence of an expert on a particular issue. There can be more than one expert witness per case if there are several areas of expertise to address. An expert witness may be 12)_________ in court proceedings and may be called to give evidence although there are strict rules about the content and format of an expert witness's report and the evidence he may give. Please see our separate OUT-LAW Guide for more information.

Trial: with the exception of civil 13)_________ and defamation cases there is no right to trial by jury –  the trial will be determined by the judge alone.

English trials are predominantly oral, requiring each party's counsel to make oral submissions and 14)_________ the judge's attention to the relevant evidence and law.  However, before the start of the trial, the judge will 15)_________ have read the court documents, witness statements, experts' reports and skeleton arguments drafted by counsel. The judge does not make his own investigations, but he may put questions to counsel or witnesses.  

In summary, the trial 16)_________ of each party's advocate setting out their case and calling on the evidence of the witnesses and experts that they seek to rely on. These witnesses may be cross-examined by the opposing barrister. The trial will end with both parties' barristers summing up the 17)_________ and making submissions on the relevant law.  The judge will make his decision based on the evidence and arguments put before him.

Judgement may be given 18)_________ after the trial or, in more complicated cases, reserved until a later date when the judge has reflected on the issues. If a party 19)_________ to appeal the judgement it must obtain the permission of the court – permission will only be given in limited circumstances.


3. Read the following article and make a rendering of it in English.


Уголовный процесс представляет собой универсальное явление, характерное для правовой системы любого государства, каковы бы ни были ее национальные особенности. В этом смысле он является классическим элементом системы права, без которого даже теоретически невозможно себе представить правовое регулирование. В то же время обязательное присутствие уголовного процесса в той или иной правовой системе, конечно, не означает, что он везде существует в идентичной и неизменной форме. Поэтому необходимо различать универсальность уголовного процесса как общего понятия и его разнообразие в плане организации, правового оформления, практики применения и т.п. при конкретном воплощении данного понятия в отдельном государстве в соответствующую историческую эпоху. Иными словами, уголовный процесс существует везде, но единого стандарта уголовного процесса никогда не было, нет и быть не может, по крайней мере на сегодняшний день. В силу этого юридико-техническое понимание уголовного процесса всегда отражает определенные национальные представления о нем и определенный исторический опыт конкретного государства.

Part 2



Criminal justice systems at the federal, state, and local levels must follow a series of rules governing the stages of a criminal case, beginning with police investigations and continuing all the way through trial and appeal. Federal criminal procedure is governed by substantive criminal laws found in Title 18 of the U.S. Code and the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure. Every state has its own code of criminal statutes. Procedural rules help ensure that the government applies the law in as consistent a manner as possible, and also help safeguard individuals’ constitutional rights. These procedures apply in all criminal matters, as well as in some quasi-criminal proceedings, such as deportation hearings.

Fourth Amendment Rights

The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects people from «unreasonable searches and seizures» by police. In order to prevent violations of this right, police are required to obtain a search warrant from a judge, after showing probable cause to believe the search is likely to produce evidence related to a crime. A defendant who alleges that police seized evidence in violation of his or her Fourth Amendment rights may file a motion to suppress that evidence under the exclusionary rule.

Fifth and Sixth Amendment Rights

A series of constitutional rights, commonly known as Miranda rights, protect people during police investigations and at trial. The right to remain silent, well-known to anyone who watches cop shows on television, means that the police cannot force people to incriminate themselves, and prosecutors cannot call a defendant as a witness at the defendant’s own trial.

A person has the right to an attorney of his or her own choosing once he or she has been arrested and during any custodial interrogation by police. In some situations, a person who cannot afford an attorney has the right to a public defender or a court-appointed lawyer. Once a person has invoked his or her right to silence or to an attorney, all questioning must cease.

Other rights guaranteed by the Fifth and Sixth Amendments include the right to confront one’s accuser in court, known as the Confrontation Clause; the right against being charged with the same offense more than once, known as double jeopardy; the right to a trial before an impartial jury; and the right to a speedy trial without undue delay.

Eighth Amendment Rights

The Eighth Amendment protects people after an arrest, which might be in the early stages of a criminal case, and after a conviction. It prohibits «excessive bail»,  which means that while a judge is not obligated to grant bail for a person after his or her arrest, the amount of bail may not be unreasonable or excessive.

The Eighth Amendment also prohibits «excessive fines» and «cruel and unusual punishment». Supreme Court Justice William Brennan identified four principles to consider in determining whether a punishment violates the Eighth Amendment:

1) whether its «severity» is «degrading to human dignity»;

2) whether it is assessed in a «wholly arbitrary fashion»;

3) whether society has generally rejected it as a punishment;

4) whether it is «patently unnecessary». Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972). That decision ruled that capital punishment violated the Eighth Amendment, but the court reversed that holding four years later in Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153 (1976).

After a person has been arrested, the state must formally bring charges, either by filing a complaint or obtaining a grand jury indictment. The court informs the defendant of the charges at the first court appearance, known as an arraignment. Pre-trial proceedings allow the defendant to request suppression of evidence under the exclusionary rule and resolve other matters.

The criminal trial process begins with empaneling a jury, unless the defendant chooses to have a bench trial. The state, which has the burden of proving guilt, presents its evidence and witnesses first. The defendant then has the opportunity to rebut the state’s claims or prove an affirmative defense. The judge or jury determines a verdict. If the jury cannot reach a unanimous verdict, the court may declare a mistrial. If they defendant is found guilty, the court determines a sentence.



1. Sum up the main ides of the text and retell it in Russian.


2. Fill in the missing words from the box into the text below.

necessary previous guilty case hearing committal approach standard required court prosecution trial progressing specific


Under the pre-trial processes in the Criminal Procedure Act, a pre-trial hearing in front of a judge is held only if 1)________. The Act establishes a new «case review» process, which in most cases will be dealt with by the court registrar.

Under the 2)________ law, if there was to be a judge-alone trial in the District Court (called «summary» proceedings), there was usually a «status hearing» with the judge before the trial to examine the defendant’s not 3)________ plea and see if the 4)________ could be resolved without a trial. Status hearings were abolished by the Criminal Procedure Act. In more serious cases dealt with by jury trials («indictable» proceedings), there was a «committal» 5)________ (sometimes also called «depositions») before a judge or Justices of the Peace. In 2009 the  6)________ process was changed so that the 7)________ procedure was for no committal hearing to be held, although the parties could ask for one to be held. In 2013 the Criminal Procedure Act extended that 8)________ to judge-alone trials in the District Court, so that pre-trial processes can mostly be dealt with by the registrar.

Under the Criminal Procedure Act, before the «case review» date the defence and the prosecution are 9)________ to exchange information, discuss procedural issues and file a joint «Case Management Memorandum» with the 10)________. If this Memorandum doesn’t raise issues that need intervention from a judge (such as the  11)________ wanting to amend the charge), the case review date will be before a registrar, who will adjourn the case to the trial date or, if there’s to be a jury 12)________, to a «jury trial callover».

A jury trial callover is an essentially administrative appearance before a judge to ensure that the case is 13)________ towards the trial on schedule. However, the callover may lead to pre-trial hearings before a judge to decide 14)________ issues, such as whether specific evidence can be presented at the trial.

3. Read the following article and make a rendering of it in English.


Универсальность общего понятия уголовного процесса объясняется механизмом реакции государства на преступление, т.е. деяние, запрещенное под страхом уголовного наказания. В правовом смысле наказание никогда не является автоматическим следствием преступления, причем не только потому, что некоторые преступления остаются неизвестными органам государственной власти (латентная преступность), а другие – нераскрытыми. Даже в том оптимальном случае, когда правоохранительным органам становится известно о преступлении и они имеют все основания предполагать, кто его совершил, такого рода предположения сами по себе не имеют никакой юридической силы и не влекут уголовного наказания. Для применения последнего во всех без исключения случаях требуется официально начать производство по уголовному делу, выяснить все его обстоятельства, установить обвиняемого и собрать доказательства его виновности, предоставить обвиняемому все возможности для защиты, передать материалы уголовного дела в суд, после чего произвести судебное разбирательство данного уголовного дела и разрешить его по существу в форме приговора, предоставив тем, кто недоволен приговором, возможность обжаловать его в вышестоящие судебные инстанции. Только такая деятельность, которая протекает в строго установленных процессуальных формах и отделяет момент обнаружения преступления от момента решения судом вопроса о наличии или об отсутствии оснований для уголовной ответственности, дает государству право наказывать виновных независимо оттого, какие бы тяжкие преступления они ни совершили. Без уголовного процесса конкретные преступления могут существовать только в латентной (скрытой) форме в качестве социального феномена, не получившего официальной констатации со стороны государства, а конкретные наказания вовсе являются невозможными.

Любая государственная регистрация отдельного гипотетического преступления с неизбежностью означает начало процессуальной деятельности, независимо от того, приведет ли эта деятельность к появлению уголовного дела, его прохождению через все стадии уголовного процесса и разрешению судом в форме приговора или завершится решением о том, что факт совершения преступления не нашел подтверждения, в связи с чем в возбуждении уголовного дела необходимо отказать.


Part 3



Many people's first introduction to the legal system occurs during a criminal case. Each criminal case is different, but there are some steps that are common to most, if not all, criminal cases. In this section you will find information on what to expect at each stage of a typical criminal case – including tips on the arrest process, plea bargains, sentencing options, and more. The resources on this page are meant to provide a general overview of a criminal matter – from arrest to the appeals process. The laws in your state and/or city may deviate significantly from those described here. If you have specific questions related to your situation you should speak with a local criminal defense attorney.

«Show Less Arrest Getting arrested can be a frightening experience no matter who you are. When someone is arrested by the police, a specific series of events follows. The police must follow legal procedures during the actual arrest process, and at many other stages along the way to actually placing a suspect in jail. Criminal Trial A typical criminal case has several different phases. Unless a guilty plea is entered, criminal cases are resolved by trial.

A defendant has a constitutional right to a «speedy trial». However, if a defendant demands a «speedy trial» and the prosecutor is not prepared to proceed to trial, the charges against the defendant may be dismissed. If not, the case will go to trial. During trial, the jury is instructed that the defendant is presumed innocent, and that the presumption of innocence does not change until the jury begins deliberations. Jurors are not supposed to abandon the presumption of innocence before hearing all of the evidence in the case. If the jury finds the defendant guilty, a defendant may file post-trial motions, such as a motion for a new trial. These motions are rarely granted.

The defendant may also file an appeal. Sentencing After a person is convicted of a crime, whether through a guilty plea, plea bargain, or jury verdict, the appropriate legal punishment is determined at the sentencing phase. A number of different kinds of punishment may be imposed on a convicted criminal defendant including fines, incarceration, probation and even community service. The sentencing judge will also consider punishments and sentencing ranges identified in applicable criminal statutes, as well as the defendant's background and personal, social and economic circumstances.

How a Criminal Defense Attorney Can Help You It is the job of criminal defense attorneys to represent those charged with crimes in court. Crimes can range in severity from a misdemeanor to a felony. Punishment can range from a minor fine or community service to years in prison or even death. Having an attorney during criminal proceedings is critical for those charged with committing a crime. In fact, the Constitution promises that all citizens charged with a crime will be provided representation. Your criminal defense attorney's job is to protect your rights and ensure your access to a fair trial. By examining the circumstances surrounding your case and weighing the strength of the evidence against you, your defense lawyer will apply current law, along with previous legal precedent, to your specific situation and use it to devise a solid legal strategy and build the best possible case for acquittal.


1. Sum up the main ides of the text and retell it in Russian.


2. Fill in the missing words from the box into the text below.

criminal proceedings defendants officers eyewitnesses engaged order stage probable acquires formal person custodial subjected contraband discretion remain investigation allow constitutional


Chronology for the discrete stages of a criminal prosecution may be identified in the 1)________ procedure systems of all jurisdictions. Traditionally, prosecutors have the authority at each stage to choose not to move forward to the next stage. After the initiation of «adversary judicial 2)________»,  indigent 3)________ are entitled to the assistance of appointed counsel under the federal constitution at «critical stages» of the prosecution.

The Reporting of the Crime

Police 4)________ obtain information about criminal activity from their own observations and/or other sources, including such informants as 5)________, victims, individuals 6)________ in criminal activity, and other persons in possession of hearsay information.

Pre-arrest Investigation

The investigation is conducted in 7)________ to determine whether a crime was committed and whether there is sufficient evidence that points to the guilt of a particular person. During this 8)________, police may employ such procedures as non-custodial questioning of suspects, witness interviews, various warrantless searches that do not require 9)________ cause, and identification procedures such as lineups, showups, and photo arrays.

The Arrest

When a police officer 10)________ sufficient information to establish «probable cause» to believe that a particular person committed a crime, then the officer is entitled to make a 11)________ «custodial» arrest of that 12)________. State law defines the scope of police power to issue a citation in lieu of making a custodial arrest. A 13)________ felony arrest may be made in public without a warrant; a warrant or exigent circumstances is required for such an arrest in a dwelling.

The Arrest and Booking Process

The arresting officer is entitled to search an arrested person and seize any weapons, 14)________, or evidence relating to a crime. The arrestee in custody will then be taken to jail and 15)________ to the «booking» process; he or she may be photographed or fingerprinted, and will be required to provide identifying information. Depending on the crime and on the 16)________ of police and prosecutors, the arrestee may be released subsequent to booking, or may be required to 17)________ in jail until bail is set by a magistrate and bond is posted.

Post-arrest Investigation

This investigation may include police use of the same kinds of procedures employed during the pre-arrest 17)________. Police also may conduct custodial interrogations of the arrestee in accordance with constitutional limitations. Police are not required to 18)________ the arrestee to consult with counsel or appointed counsel, but may not interrogate an arrestee who invokes the 18)________ rights to silence or to counsel.


3. Read the following article and make a rendering of it in English.


В отечественной юридической традиции есть несколько устоявшихся терминов для обозначения деятельности, отделяющей государственную регистрацию факта гипотетического преступления от принятия по этому факту окончательного решения о наличии (отсутствии) признаков преступления и наличии (отсутствии) оснований для уголовного наказания. Наиболее распространенным является термин уголовный процесс, используемый в наименовании основного закона, регулирующего отношения в интересующей нас сфере, – Уголовно-процессуального кодекса Российской Федерации. Слово «процесс» происходит от латинского «processus», т.е. «движение вперед», что подчеркивает динамику уголовно-процессуальной деятельности, когда уголовное дело движется из стадии в стадию, каждая из которых должна приближать нас к окончательному разрешению вопросов материального уголовного права (о преступлении и о наказании). Иначе говоря, здесь сам термин обозначает движение от преступления к наказанию, что отличает динамичный уголовный процесс от статичного уголовного права, поскольку к моменту начала уголовно-процессуальной деятельности преступление уже навсегда остается в прошлом – меняться могут лишь процессуальные знания о нем, выраженные в доказательствах и уголовно-процессуальных решениях.

Наряду с этим существует еще один термин –  уголовное судопроизводство. Он встречается не только в юридической литературе, но и в Конституции РФ (ст. 118), а также в действующем российском законодательстве. Следует иметь в виду, что в уголовно-процессуальном смысле «уголовный процесс» и «уголовное судопроизводство» –  абсолютные синонимы, использование которых одинаково допустимо для обозначения всей совокупности уголовно-процессуальной деятельности. Никого не должна вводить в заблуждение внешняя этимология слова «судопроизводство», отсылающая якобы только к судебным стадиям уголовного процесса. На самом деле, как указано в п. 56 ст. 5 УПК РФ, понятие «уголовное судопроизводство» охватывает не только судебное, но и досудебное производство по уголовному делу, т.е. весь уголовный процесс в целом. Этому есть как историческое, так и теоретическое объяснение. С исторической точки зрения, первые российские автономные уголовно-процессуальные законодательные акты, кодифицировавшие весь отечественный уголовный процесс (включая его досудебные стадии) в ходе Судебной реформы Александра II, именовались Основные положения уголовного судопроизводства 1862 г. и Устав уголовного судопроизводства 1864 г. В результате понятие «уголовное судопроизводство» стало повсеместно использоваться в российском правоведении даже раньше понятия «уголовный процесс», будучи в значительной мере вытеснено последним только в XX в. С тех пор взаимозаменяемость этих терминов стала отечественной доктринальной традицией, сохранившейся до наших дней и нашедшей отражение в УПК РФ. С теоретической точки зрения, понятие «уголовное судопроизводство» совершенно безупречно потому, что подчеркивает так называемую идею полноты судебной власти: любая несудебная профессиональная деятельность в уголовном процессе (полицейская, прокурорская, адвокатская, экспертная) существует для суда, находится под его непосредственным или опосредованным контролем и в конечном итоге служит интересам правосудия. Поэтому даже в тех случаях, когда уголовный процесс не является судебным в формальном смысле, он остается таковым по существу, т.е. всегда совпадает по объему с судопроизводством.

В то же время конституционно-правовой смысл понятия «уголовное судопроизводство» не всегда совпадает с уголовно-процессуальным. Так, например, ч. 2 ст. 123 Конституции РФ, где говорится о том, что «судопроизводство осуществляется на основе состязательности и равноправия сторон», имеет общеправовой характер и в одинаковой мере распространяется на конституционное, гражданское, административное судопроизводство. Поэтому уголовного судопроизводства она касается только в части его судебных стадий. Иное толкование с учетом специфики уголовного судопроизводства вряд ли возможно, поскольку в стадии возбуждения уголовного дела или предварительного расследования (особенно на начальных этапах) уголовно-процессуальная деятельность нередко ведется в отсутствие подозреваемого или обвиняемого с целью их установления, что исключает возможность даже постановки вопроса о «сторонах», их «равенстве» или «состязательности». В этом смысле следует иметь в виду, что ч. 1 ст. 15 УПК РФ воспроизводит конституционно-правовое понимание «уголовного судопроизводства», не в полной мере совпадающее с историческим уголовно-процессуальным толкованием данного понятия.