Reading: Planning for Quality

Video: Quality Planning Techniques

Grammar: Active Voice

Career Skills: Introducing  yourself

Dilemma: Good and Ideal Quality Planning – How to plan for your project?



Quality management is a method for ensuring that all the activities necessary to design, develop and implement a product or service are effective and efficient with respect to the system and its performance. Quality management can be considered to have three main components: quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement. Quality management is focused not only on product quality, but also the means to achieve it. Quality management therefore uses quality assurance and control of processes as well as products to achieve more consistent quality.


1. Discuss the questions with a partner.

1. What does the category of quality mean?
2. What quality parameters do you know?
3. What role does quality play in project success?

2. There are four levels on which we determine that something has or is lacking quality. Match the levels of quality in column A with their characteristics in column B.

The Facets of Quality



1) Universal

a) Many styles and forms are agreed on by groups of people economic or social classes, ethnic groups, families, or groups of friends that are smaller than a whole culture but larger than the individual. Styles may last a season, years, or even decades, but not centuries.

2) Cultural

b) Some cultural value systems create agreements about what is beautiful that last for centuries. For example, to those who grow up learning to appreciate classical music whether it is of China, India, or Europe that sound is wonderful. Yet the rules for each are different. Chinese music uses a five-tone scale, while Western music uses eight tones per octave. Chinese music and Western music always have rhythm, but Indian classical music includes a form that has no rhythm no set beat or timing. To anyone trained in one tradition, the music is beautiful and deep. But the traditions alien to us, although alluring, are strange enough to be uncomfortable.

3) Social

c) There are some purely personal preferences regarding what matters, what has value, what is quality. As the French say, chacun a son gout, each to his own taste. Or, as the Romans put it, de gustibus non disputandum est, there is no disputing matters of taste. Or, in English, to each his own. So it is universally recognized that there is a valid personal element to taste, that there is no logical argument one can put forth to say what someone else should or should not like.

4) Personal

d) We are all awed by a night sky or a beautiful sunrise. All of us are relaxed by a swim in the sea and nourished by fresh water.


1. You are going to read a text about quality planning. Before you read, check that you understand these important words. Match the words to the definitions.

1. to consist

a) the amount of goods or work produced by a person, machine, factory

2. selection

b) to try to make or change an agreement by discussion

3. output

c) something that is needed or demanded

4. to modify

d) helpful or useful

5. to negotiate

e) to be formed or made from two or more things

6. requirement

f) a particular part of a situation, especially something that affects how you think or feel

7. beneficial

g) when someone or something is chosen

8. frequency

h) when someone or something uses time and energy well, without wasting any

9. dimension

i) to change something in order to improve it

10. efficiency

j) the number of times something happens in a particular period, or the fact that something happens often or a large number of times

How to Plan for Quality?

The first step in a quality improvement programme is planning which in itself also consists of four major steps which are discussed below.
1) Product or service selection. The first step in planning for quality is to identify and select the product or service that needs improvement.
2) Output definition. Output is a product or service that you produce regularly and pass on to another person or department that uses it.
3) Identify the customer-supplier chain. In quality management, a customer can be both internal and external. The user of your output is your customer who may modify your output before passing it on to another person or department for further modification on and on like that until the final product or service ends up in the hand of the end user.
4) Negotiate the customer requirements. In order for a product to be usable and beneficial to your customer, there may be specific requirements which make the output useful to them. Except a product satisfies their requirements the product will not provide customer satisfaction.
Developing a quality product requires understanding the overall purpose of our customer's need for the product by answering questions such as: How will it be used? Who will be using it? What will be the ultimate use and who will be the end user?
Besides the plan should include the following parameters: quantity (how many), time (date, time, frequency), costs (budget, allowed expenses), size (dimensions), efficiency (to what degree).

2. Discuss these questions in pairs.

1. What major steps of planning do you know?
2. What does product or service selection?
3. How do we call a product or service that you produce regularly and pass on to another person or department that uses it?
4. Why is it important to know the customer’s needs and requirements?
5. What additional parameters should you discuss planning for quality?

Make a report on one of these topics:

1. Practical models and systems of quality management in Europe.
2. Practical models and systems of quality management in the USA.
3. Japanese experience of quality management.
4. Complex systems of quality management in the USSR.

Video: Quality Planning Techniques

1. You are going to watch a film about quality planning techniques. After watching the film, answer the questions below.

1. What is the first step of quality planning?
2. What does continuous improvement mean?
3. Who was the founder of this concept?
4. What cycle did W. Edwards Denning promote?
5. What is the difference between PTCA and PTSA?
6. What quality planning concepts are mentioned in the film?

2. Fill in the gaps to make phrases used in the video.

1. customer __________ questions.
2. __________ upgrade.
3. everything you do must be of __________ __________.
4. this represents a __________ of standards.
5. __________ designed to improve quality.
6. frequent __________ are required.
7. CMMI __________ for Capability Maturity Model Integration.
8. emphasis to __________ attained quality processes.
9. making the process more __________ and _________.
10. a huge danger of __________ CMMI and Agile.

Grammar: Active Voice
1. Work individually. Study the information below.

Grammar Tenses

Present Tenses



Time expression

Grammatical forms





a common fact

every day
in the morning



Don’t Doesn’t



a process

at the moment



  V -ing



recently, just
lately, already,
yet, ever

recently, just
lately, already,
yet, ever


V ed (or 3 form)


  priority +
a process

for a long time
these few days

for a long time
these few days

Have has

been + V- ing

2. Read the description of the Present Tenses and do exercises afterwards.

Present Simple

permanent situations or states

He goes to school every day.

permanent truths or laws of nature

Water freezes at 0°

repeated / habitual actions especially
with always, usually, etc

He goes fishing every weekend.

timetable / programmes with a future

The train leaves at 5.00 pm

reviews / sports commentaries 

Jared Leto acts superbly in “Alexander”.

Present Continuous

Temporary situations;

She is reading a book at the moment.

frequently repeated actions with always,      constantly expressing annoyance or criticism;

You are always leaving the entrance door open.

actions happening at or around the moment of speaking;

They are playing a cricket now.

fixed arrangements in the near future.

I'm going to a movie theatre tomorrow.

Present Perfect

Recently completed actions;

She has finished watering the lawn.

completed past actions connected to the  present with stated or unstated time reference;

I have cooked my dinner.

personal experiences or changes which have happened.

He has just gone out. She has mastered her English.

Present Perfect Continuous

Actions which started in the past and continuing up to the present;

He has been waiting for her for an hour.

past actions of certain duration having visible results or effects in the present;

He has been running. His shirt is wet.

expressing anger irritation,  annoyance, explanation, criticism;

He has been reading   my diary. (annoyance)

putting emphasis on duration.

They have been doing their homework since10 o'clock

3. Using the words in brackets, complete the sentences below with the appropriate tenses of Simple Present or Present Continuous.

  1. Usually, I (to work) as a secretary at the quality management department, but this summer I (study) Italian at a language school in Rome. That is why I am in Rome.
  2. I'm sorry I can't hear what you (to say) because everybody (to talk) so loudly.
  3. Edward (to write) currently a book about hot tips on resume writing. I hope he can find a good publisher.
  4. Shhhhh! Be quiet! Mary (to work).
  5. Gerry: Can you help me with monitoring the credit and debit accounts tonight?     Denise: Oh, I'm sorry, I can't. I (to go) to a theatre tonight with some friends.
  6. Every month, Sally (to prepare) a tax report.

4. Using the words in brackets, complete the sentences below with the appropriate tenses of Present Perfect or Present Continuous or Present Perfect Continuous.

  1. They (to test) their products lately. 
  2. John (to work) for Tesco since he graduated from Harvard University. Until recently, he (to enjoy) his work, but now he (to talk) about retiring.
  3. Lucy: How long (to be) in Paris? Sean: I (to study) here for more than two years.
  4. Tim: What is that sound? Nancy: A car alarm (to ring) somewhere down the street. It (to drive) me crazy – I wish it would stop! It (to ring) for more than twenty minutes.
  5. John: Where is Larry? Sarah: He (to study) at the library for his chemistry test on Wednesday. In fact, he   (to review) the material for the test every day during the last week.
  6. Where have you been? We (to wait) for you since 2 PM.
  7. I (to observe) Lora for more than five years and during that time I (to notice) many changes in her personality.

5. Read the description of the Past Tenses and do exercises afterwards.

Past Tenses



Time expression

Grammatical forms
 +               ?                       --

Past Simple

a common fact

last week
in 1990


Did …V1?

Didn’t +V1

Past Continuous

a process

- at that moment yesterday
- from 6 p.m. till 7p.m


V -ing

Past Perfect


by 7 o’clock
by that time

Had + V ed (or 3 form)

Past Perfect

priority +
a process


Had +been + V- ing

Past Simple

past actions which happened one immediately after the other

He reached the window, opened it and put the flower on the window sill.

completed actions or events which happened at a stated past time

She washed her car a minute ago.

past habits or states

He used to eat porridge when he was a child.

complete past actions not connected to the present with a stated or implied time reference

  Chinese invented gunpowder.
George Washington went to school for 7 or 8 years, and his favorite subject was arithmetic.

Past Continuous

actions in the middle of happening at a stated past time

She was writing letters this time last Wednesday.

two or more simultaneous past actions of certain duration

I was watching TV while my sister was playing computer games.

a past action in progress interrupted by another past action. The longer action is in the Past Continuous, the shorter action is in the Past Simple

I was learning grammar rules when my friend came.

Past Perfect

an action which happened before a stated time in the past

He had pained a roof by six o’clock in the evening.

an action which happened in the past before another past action. The action which happened earlier is in the past perfect, and the action which happened later is in the past simple

He had tested the package before he left  the laboratory.

Past Perfect Continuous

we use the Past Perfect Continuous to denote an action in the past that was in progress up to or near a time in the past. It’s often used with for and since.

Jack gave up smoking one year ago though he’d been smoking since 2005.

6. Using the words in brackets, complete the sentences below with the appropriate tense of Past Simple, Past Perfect, Past Continuous or Past Perfect Continuous.
1. A: When I (to call) you yesterday afternoon you (not to be) in your office. Where (you to  be)?
B: I (to have) lunch with my boss.
2. We had a tradition. Each worker (to go) to his boss once a week to report about the progress he (to do) for a previous week.
3. When I (to walk) through the corridor I (to think) about the necessity to keep costs low and material use to a minimum.
4. After I (to finish) the financial report I (to give) it to my boss.
5. I (list) my seasonal jobs and then I (start) to write about my job objective.
6. This time yesterday Kevin (to prepare) goods for shipment to supermarkets.
7. He (to study) for 4 years before he (to get) a Bachelor’s Degree.
8. I (to get) an invitation for the job interview a week ago.
9. A: Did he work at that agency before she retired?
B: Yes, he did.
A: How long (to work he) there before he retired?

7. Using the words in brackets, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses Past Perfect or Past Perfect Continuous

I'm sorry I left without you last morning, but I told you to meet me early because the meeting started at 8:00 and I didn't want to miss it. By the time I finally left the reception room where we were supposed to meet, I (to check) documentation once again and I (to wait) over an hour. I had to leave because I (to arrange) to talk to Mr. Luther before the meeting.

When I (to come) into the conference room, Mr. Luther (to talk) to the council already and he was waiting for us. He was really angry because he (to wait) for more than half an hour.

8. Read the description of the Future Tenses and do exercises afterwards.

Future Tenses



Time expression

Grammatical forms
 +               ?                       --


a common fact

in two days

will +V1


a process

- at that moment tomorrow
- from 6 p.m. till 7p.m

will + be + V -ing



by 7 o’clock
by that time

will + have +V ed (or 3 form)


priority +
a process


will + have + been + V- ing

Future Simple

to express a simple future action

They will go to Moscow  tomorrow.

to make a spontaneous decision at the time of speaking

The telephone is ringing. I'll pick up the phone.

to express a prediction based on certain conditions or concessions or to give a warning

If you pass the test, we’ll celebrate it.

to express willingness or refusal to do something

I won't let you teat him that way again.

Future Continuous

when we know that something will be in progress at a certain time in the future

Don’t come to me at midday tomorrow. I'll be playing footballt with my friends.

to suggest that something has been pre-arranged

This time next week, we will be correcting budget accounts.

Future Perfect

is used when we talk about an activity that will be completed by a certain time in the future.

By this time next year I will have finished my degree

Future Perfect Continuous

We use the Future Perfect Continuous when we talk about an activity that will have begun and will still be in progress by a certain time in the future.

By this time tomorrow we will have been discussing a new package design for two hours, so do call me if you want to know the result of our negotiations.

9. Using the words in brackets, complete the sentences below with the appropriate Future Tense (in several cases you’ll have to use one of Present Tenses).

  1. Right now, I am interviewing new candidates. Tomorrow at this time, I (to interview) new candidates as well.
  2. Tomorrow after classes, I (to go) to my grandmother.
  3. I am going on a vacation to St. Anton. While you (to do) paperwork and (to talk) to annoying customers on the phone, I (to ski, to snowboard). Are you jealous?
  4. Suppliers are going to come tomorrow. If James (come) up, while we (to discuss) the problems, I (not to be able) to talk to him personally. 
  5. While the entire Project team (to develop) design of a package, Mary (to try) to get her boyfriend to the phone.
  6. When tomorrow I (to get) to work, Sam and Don (to file) papers, Sue (to make) photo copies, John and Mark (to talk) about computers, and Marsha (to talk) to somebody on the phone. They are always doing the same things. They are so predictable.
  7. When you (to get) off the train, I (to wait) for you.
  8. I am sick of testing this products for a thousand time! I hope, when we (to do) final testing tomorrow morning, we (to celebrate) it.
  9. If you (to need) my help next week, I (to be) in the office in San Francisco.
  10. If you (to want) to become a package engineer, you (to have to) study hard.
  11. If you (not to turn off) that music, I (to call) police.

10.  Define what Grammar Tense the description belongs to.

Ex: general truths or facts - Present Simple

  • to express the future for plans or facts connected with timetables or schedules;
  • implies that the action was unfinished and was still going on at a specific time in the past;
  • to express the future, especially for personal plans arranged in advance.
  • can refer to an action or situation which began in the past and continues to the present. “For” and “since” tell us how long something has continued;
  • is not connected to the present because the action began and ended in the past. Specific time expressions are “ago”, “yesterday”, “last week”, “when I was a child”;
  • is used when to talk about an activity that will be completed by a certain moment in the future. This time is indicated by the use of expressions such as “by the time”, “in 2001”, etc.;
  • to make a spontaneous decision about some future actions at the time of speaking;
  • to express a prediction based on certain conditions or concessions or to give a warning;
  • refers to actions which were completed in the past but still have relevance in the present. The exact time of the action is unknown or unimportant. We are interested in the result or effect of that action on us now;
  • to talk about habits or customs;
  • refers to an action that was happening before a definite time in the past, and which finished before the time. It also tells us how long something had continued before another activity took place;
  • incomplete action happening at the moment of speaking (usually a temporary activity); often with “now”, “at the moment”, “right now”;
  • incomplete actions that are taking place, but not necessarily, at the moment of speaking;
  • when we know that something will be in progress at a time in the future;
  • to express a simple future action;
  • is used to refer to an activity that happen before another activity or time in the past. In order to emphasize the fact that the activity was completed earlier, we use time words like “when”, “after”, “before”, “by the time”;
  • refers to an activity which began in the past and continues to the present. It is often still going on in the present. We can emphasize the duration of this activity with time expressions such as: “for”, “since”, “all day”.

11. Analyze the following sentences and define their Grammar Tenses. The first is done for you.
Ex: The sun rises in the east. - Present Simple (The verb “rises” is in the first form. It has the ending “-es” because it comes with the noun “sun” - third person, singular.)

  1. Michael went to Moscow last year.
  2. We are discussing the problem right now.
  3. She has broken her leg.
  4. She has been waiting for the last two hours.
  5. The lawn was wet because the gardener was watering the grass.
  6. We had been diving for one hour when we ran out of oxygen.
  7. When I had finished all my work, I went home.
  8. Someone's at the door. I'll get it.
  9. Meet me at 7.00 tonight. I'll be waiting at the entrance of the cinema.
  10. By this time next year I will have finished my degree course.

12. Circle the letters of the correct verb forms the complete the sentences.

1. Before Mr. Smith took the position of a manager, Mr. Fisher _______ development of protective packaging containers.

A. plans

B. planned

C. had planned

D. will plan

2. Lucy is a Package Designer. She _______ fond of her job.

A. is

B. be

C. was

D. were

3. James is a student now. He _______ of becoming a Package Engineer since he was a child.

A dreams

B. has been dreaming

C has dreamt

 D is dreaming

4. Susan _______ a report now.

A. writes

B. has written

C. is writing

D. has been writing

5. Mr. Collin is looking for you. He  _______  your advice on packing procedures.

A. is needing

B. needed

C. need

D. needs

6. They _______ innovations in packaging materials all day yesterday.

A. were discussing

B. discussed

C. are discussing

D. have discussed

7. I suppose we _______ specifications of the product by 5 pm tomorrow.

A. will analyze

B. will be analyzing

C. will have analyzed

D. are analyzing

13. Compose sentences out of the words from the columns. Use as many Grammar Tenses as you can.

Ex: Our Project Team Leader is representing the designed package at this moment.


to design
to determine costs
to draw up contracts
to plan and direct
to analyze engineering drawings
to represent a designed package
to negotiate
to go by plane
to miss
to celebrate

at this moment
since midday
in a week
by 7 o’clock tomorrow
from 5 till 7
every day

Career skills: Introducing yourself

When we meet business contacts for the first time, we usually give information about ourselves, for example, name, nationality, job title and company. We may also need to ask people for information about themselves. Look at the following examples.

1. Match the questions 1-4 with the responses a-d .
1 What's your name?
2 Where are you from?
3 What do you do?
4 What company are you with?
a I'm (an IT manage).
b I'm (Tom Allen).
e I'm (from the UK) I'm (British).
d I'm (with Alcoa).

2. Work with a partner. Use the information on the business cards to introduce yourself to your partner and ask questions.

Student A
1 live / Sweden / six months (past simple)
2 No - but / study marketing / university (present perfect - past simple)
3 work in design / manage team projects (present simple)
4 Yes - really like it (present simple)
5 work / design / 2006 (present perfect)
6 go swimming (and give real information about yourself) (present simple)
(think of your own reasons)           


Student B
1 live / Brazil / two years (past simple)
2 Yes - work / quality manager / three years (present perfect - past simple)
3 manage staff of 12 (present simple)
4 Yes - really like it (present simple)
6 go / the cinema (and give real information about yourself (present simple)
7 (think of your own reasons)


Dilemma: Good and Ideal Quality Planning – How to plan for your project?

 Process Task: Imagine that you are a project manager and you need to make up a Quality Management Plan. 

The name of the company:______________________________ 

Address: ________________________ 

Types of Production:_______________________________ 

The Quality Management Plan: 

  • Quality objectives
  • Key project deliverables and processes to be reviewed for satisfactory quality level
  • Quality standards
  • Quality control and assurance activities
  • Quality roles and responsibilities
  • Quality tools
  • Plan for reporting quality control and assurance problems


The purpose of developing a quality plan is to elicit the customer’s expectations in terms of quality and prepare a proactive quality management plan to meet those expectations.

The Quality Management Plan helps the project manager determine if deliverables are being produced to an acceptable quality level and if the project processes used to manage and create the deliverables are effective and properly applied.   


Quality Management Plan segment of the Project Plan

Word List

consistent quality
control of processes
customer-supplier chain
product quality
quality assurance
quality control
quality improvement
quality management
to appreciate
to awe
to consist of
to modify
to negotiate
to nourish
to put forth

чужестранец; иноземец; иностранец
стабильное качество
управление процессами
цепь клиент-поставщик
размеры; величина; измерение
качество продукции
гарантия качества
контроль качества
улучшение качества
управление качеством
внушать страх; внушать благоговение
состоять из
вести переговоры